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Al-Madīnah Al-Munawwarah

 المدينة المنورة

Madinah has 95 names, including Taibah, Tabah, Qubbat Al-Islam, Al-Mu'mina, Al-Mubarakah, Dar Al-Abrar, Dar Al-Sunnah, Dar Al-Akhyar, Dar Al-Fateh, Dhat Al-Hirar, Dhat Al-Nakhi, Al-Barrah and Al-Jaberah.Madinah is the city of the Prophet, and also his burial place. It was the first Islamic city to support the Prophet (peace be upon him), and it joined him in fighting decisive battles which were instrumental in the victory of Islam and its subsequent spread.This is the city of the Ansar, or "Supporters' and their brothers the Muhajireen, or "Emigrants", who together formed the first Islamic army which entered Makkah in triumph eight years after the Prophet's Hijrah, or Migration. It was a city which loved the Prophet, and which he in turn loved. On its soil he built his sacred mosque, and it was here that he was buried.Madinah was also the city of the Orthodox Caliphs of Islam, who shouldered the responsibility of Jihad, or holy struggle, fighting against renegades and propagating Islam in the countries surrounding the Arabian peninsula.It was the seat of the first Islamic state, and witnessed the Prophet's companions administering the affairs of the Moslem community, compiling the Holy Quran, and dispatching armies to Persia, Syria and Egypt.It is now the city of the Second Holy Mosque, and the Monarch, government and people of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia take pride in serving and developing it in keeping with its distinguished status in Islamic history.

After the pledge of 'Aqabah between the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him {PBUH}) and the new Muslims from Medina according to which they would support him and defend his religion as much as they could, the Prophet began encouraging his followers to migrate to Medina. 

This movement still further aroused the hostility of the Quraysh. They were unhappy with emigration because it would remove the Muslims to a place entirely beyond their reach, and plant them in a safe place whence they might securely work out their plans. The Quraysh, therefore, renewed their persecution, and, wherever they had power, they sought either to force the believers to recant, or to prevent their escape by confining them. However, a speedy movement of the Muslims to Medina went on till the entire quarters of the city became deserted. 

Within two months nearly all the followers of Muhammad, except Abu Bakr, Ali, the Prophet himself and those helpless noble souls who had been detained in confinement or were unable to escape from slavery, had migrated to their new abode. They were welcomed with cordial and even eager hospitality by their brethren at Medina, who vied with one another for the honour of receiving them into their homes and supplying their domestic wants. 

This situation alarmed the Quraysh and at last they convened a meeting to take some effective measures with a view to stopping this tidal wave. Imprisonment for life, expulsion from the city, each was debated in turn. Assassination was then proposed, but assassination by one man would have exposed him and his family to the vengeance of blood. The difficulty was at last solved by Abu Jahl who suggested that a band of young men, one from each tribe, should strike Muhammad simultaneously with their swords so that the blood wit was spread over them all and therefore could not be exacted. 

This proposal was accepted and a number of young men were selected for the sanguinary deed. Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) was informed of all that had been conspired against him and the angel Gabriel  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) revealed this verse to the him: "They are devising a plan against thee and I will devise a plan for thee. Wherefore bear with the infidels and let them alone for a while." [Al-Tariq 15-17] 

How splendidly did it come true! Eleven of the conspirators were killed shortly after in the Battle of Badr, and the remaining three were converted to Islam, and the Prophet escaped safely from their hands. Referring to their deliberations the Holy Qur'an says: "And call to mind when the unbelievers devised their plans against thee, that they might imprison thee or slay thee or expel thee from the city. Yes, they devised plans, but God also devised plans." [Al-Anfal - 30]

The situation was no doubt critical but the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) was not at all perturbed. Abu Bakr was, however, urging the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) to depart from Mecca. He was also eagerly waiting for an opportunity to accompany Muhammad on this eventful journey. But the Prophet told him that the time had not yet come, the Lord had not given him the command to migrate. 

This delay in the command might have been caused by the overpowering desire of the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) to see all his followers safely go away from Mecca before he himself left for Medina. Moreover, by deferring his departure Allah (SWT) perhaps purposely wanted to show to the people that Muhammad was His Messenger and he had been deputed by Him to call people to the path of righteousness and that the Prophet had, therefore, no cause for fear. 

The events also made it plain that the safety and security of the Prophet's life depended upon Allah (SWT) alone and that the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) therefore, did not need to bank upon the support of any other individual or agency; that the Almighty Who had the power to create man and the universe also had the power to save Muhammad from the danger that beset him. 

The Prophet Leaves Mecca: 

In anticipation of the command of Allah, Abu Bakr had made preparations for the journey four months before their departure. He had purchased two swift camels and had fed them properly so that they could successfully stand the ordeal of the long desert journey. 

One day the Holy Prophet came to the house of Abu Bakr and informed him that Allah (SWT) had commanded him to leave for Medina. The faithful admirer of the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) shed tears of joy. The hour for emigration had at last arrived and he was to be the companion of the Prophet's journey. Abu Bakr offered him one of the camels, which he had already bought for the occasion. The Prophet accepted this offer on condition that he would pay its price. 

Abu Bakr's daughter Asmaa prepared a bag containing meals for the trip. On the other hand, the Meccans were on the alert. As night advanced, they posted assassins around the Prophet's house. Thus they kept vigil all night long waiting to kill him the moment he left his house early in the morning, peeping now and then through a hole in the door to make sure that he still lay on his bed. 

Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) had with him people's trusts, which he entrusted to his cousin, Ali to return them safely to their respective owners and assured him full surety under Allah's protection and told him that no harm would come to him. Ali lay in the Prophet's bed covered with his green mantle. The Prophet came out of the room and cast a handful of dust at the assassins and reciting verses of the Holy Qur'an, he passed unperceived through them! 

The assassins remained on the watch until the day dawned when they rushed in and to their utter surprise, found that the person lying in the Prophet's bed was Ali rather than Prophet Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ). This created a stir in the whole town. 

Prophet Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) proceeded direct to the house of Abu Bakr who immediately accompanied him and both set out southward, clambered up the lofty peak of Mountain Thawr, and decided to take refuge in a cave. Abu Bakr first entered the cave, closed all the holes with pieces torn off from his clothes, cleaned it and then asked the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) to step in. 

The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and his companion stayed in this cave for three nights. Abdullah, the son of Abu Bakr, would go to see them daily after dusk and apprise them of the situation in the city. Amir b. Fuhayrah, while in the company of other shepherds of Mecca tending his master Abu Bakr's flock, stole away unobserved every evening with a few goats to the cave and furnished its inmates with a plentiful supply of milk. 

The Quraysh, on the other hand, were quite baffled and exasperated. A price was set upon Muhammad's head. The news that the would-be assassins had returned unsuccessful, and that Prophet Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) had escaped made them gnash their teeth in anger and frustration. Horsemen scoured the country. Once they even reached the mouth of the cave where the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) was hiding along with Abu Bakr. When he saw the enemy at a very close distance Abu Bakr whispered to the Prophet: "What, if they were to look through the crevice and detect us? We are two and unarmed and at the bottom of the cave." 

The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) in his God-inspired calm replied: 'O Abu Bakr! What do you think of those two with whom the Third is Allah?' Alluding to this important scene of the cave the Holy Qur'an says: "If ye will not assist the Prophet, verily God assisted him aforetime when the unbelievers cast him forth, in the company of the second only; when the two were in the cave alone; when the Prophet said unto his companion: "Be not cast down, for verily Allah is with us! And Allah caused to descent tranquillity upon him and strengthened him with hosts which ye saw not, and made the word of unbelievers to be abased; and the word of the Lord, that is exalted, for God is Mighty and Wise." [Al-Taubah - 40] 

For three days Prophet Muhammad ( sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention )) and Abu Bakr lived in the cave and the Quraysh continued their frantic efforts to get hold of them. 

Abdullah b. Uraiqit, who had as yet not embraced Islam, but was trusted by Abu Bakr, and had been hired by him as a guide, reached the cave after three nights according to a plan. His report satisfied the noble fugitives that the search had slackened. The opportunity to depart was come. They could move unobserved the sooner the better. 

In the Way to Medina: 

They rode the camels, Prophet Muhammad ( sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention )), with the guide and Abu Bakr with his servant Ibn Fuhayra behind him, and resumed their journey. Having come down from mount Thawr and having left the lower quarter of Mecca a little to the right, they struck off by a track considerably to the left of the common road and, hurrying westward, soon gained the vicinity of the seashore near by 'Usfan. 

The Quraysh, as we have mentioned above, had declared that whoever would seize Prophet Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) would receive a hundred camels as reward. This had spurred many persons to try their luck. Among those who were on the lookout for the Prophet and his companion in order to win the reward was Suraqah, the son of Malik. 

He, on receiving information that a party of four had been observed on a certain route, decided to pursue it secretly so that he alone should be the winner of the reward. He mounted a swift horse and went in pursuit of them. On the way the horse stumbled and he fell on the ground. Again he jumped into the saddle and galloped on at a break-neck speed till he came quite close to the Prophet. Abu Bakr's heart agitated and he said to the Prophet: "O Messenger of Allah! We are lost." But the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) remarked in his clam and confident tone: "Be not cast down, for verily Allah is with us." 

This marvelous steadfastness of the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) in the midst of overwhelming perils was due to Divine revelation that strengthened him and comforted him at every step of his life. 

When Suraqah came nearer, the repeated stumbling of his horse and his falling from it awakened him to the situation and he realized that it was a constant warning of Allah for his evil design which he contemplated against the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ). His heart was immediately changed and the sworn enemy was converted into an honest believer! He approached the Prophet with a penitent heart and begged of him forgiveness in all humility. 

The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) forgave him and confirmed it with a token written by Abu Bakr on a piece of parchment. Suraqah hurried back to Mecca and tried to foil the attempts of those who were running in pursuit of Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and his companions.

On the day when the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) entered Mecca in triumph, after eight years, Suraqah showed this writing to him. The Prophet rewarded him and said: "It is the day of favour and fidelity." 

The party continued its journey until it reached the encampment of Umm Ma'abad al-Khuza'iyah. She was a gracious lady who sat at her tent-door with a carpet spread out for any chance traveller that might pass that way. Fatigued and thirsty, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and his companions wanted to refresh themselves with food and a few draughts of milk. The lady told them that the flock was out in the pasture and the goat standing near by was almost dry. 

The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) with her permission, touched its udders reciting over them the name of Allah and to his great joy, there flowed plenty of milk out of them. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) first offered that to the lady of the house and what was left by her was shared by the members of the party. 

After having refreshed themselves the emigrants moved further. Leaving the encampment of Umm Ma'bad, Prophet Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and his companions lost no time and resumed their journey, going through unfrequented paths and suffering great hardships on account of scarcity of water and severity of heat. In the evening when Abu Ma'abad, the husband of Umm Ma'abad, came to his house, the lady narrated to him this strange incident and gave him his description he said: "By God, he is the same man whom the people of al-Quraysh are searching for." 

As soon as rumors of Muhammad's arrival began to spread, crowds came flocking out to the outskirts of the city. They would come every morning and wait eagerly for his appearance until forced by the unbearable heat of the midday sun to return. One day they had gone as usual and after a long trying watch had retired to the city when a Jew, catching a glimpse from the top of a hillock: "O ye people of Arabia! He has come! He has come! He, whom ye have been eagerly waiting for, has come!" 

The joyful news soon spread throughout the city and people marched forward to great their noble guest. The shouts of "Allahu Akbar" (God is Great) resounded in Banu 'Amar. Prophet Muhammad's elation, correspondingly increased, but with rare sense of timing and propriety, he called a halt. It was Monday, the eighth day of Rabi al-Awwal, thirteen years after the inauguration of the prophetic career of Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) i.e. on 20 September 622. 

Prophet Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) stayed in Quba, with Kulthum b. Hidm, a hospitable chief of the tribe of 'Amr b. 'Awf, who had already received many of the emigrants on their first arrival. It was that the party was joined by Ali. He brought the news that the rest of the family would soon be arriving. Zayd was leading one party, which included his own wife Zaynab, the Prophet's wife Sawdah, and his daughters Fatimah and Umm Kulthum. 'Abd Allah b. Abu Bakr was bringing his sisters A'ishah and Asma', as well as his mother Umm Ruman. 

During his period of stay at Quba' which, according to Bukahri, extended to a fortnight, was laid the foundation of a mosque which has been glorified in the Qur'an in the following words: "The mosque which was founded upon piety from the first day is more worthy that thou shouldest stand (to pray) therein." [Al-Taubah:108] 

On the morning of Friday Prophet Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) rode towards Medina amidst the cordial greetings of his Medinese followers who had lined his path. He halted at a place in the vale of Bani Salim and there performed his first Friday prayer. 

The Prophet Reaches Medina: 

After leading the Friday prayer the Prophet resumed his journey towards Medina. The tribes and families of Medina came streaming forth, and vied with one another in inviting the noble visitor to their homes. It was indeed a triumphal procession. Around the camel of the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) rode the chief men of the city in their best raiment and in glittering armour. Everyone was anxious to receive him and said: "Alight here, O Messenger of God! Abide by us." Prophet Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) answered everyone courteously and kindly: "This camel is commanded by God, wherever it stops, that will be my abode." 

The camel moved onward with slackened rein and entered the quarter of the city inhabited by Banu Najjar, a tribe who was related to the Prophet from the maternal side. There it stopped before the house owned by Abu Ayyub. The fortunate host stepped forward with unbounded joy for the Divine blessing appropriated to him, welcomed the holy guests and solicited them to enter his house. Abu Ayyub, out of the profound respect that he had for the Prophet preferred the lower one, being more accessible to his visitors. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) remained in this house for seven months until the building of the mosque and his own apartments was completed. 

Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah holds a distinguished place in the hearts of all Muslims. It was the first capitol in Islam and from it, Islamic propagation was launched as well as the conquests to open the lands of the earth to Islam. At the heart of the city is the second of The Two Holy Mosques, The Prophet's Mosque, and the final resting place of the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him). The Prophet’s Mosque has been a distinguished symbol in the history of Islam and that of its legislation. Allah, the Almighty, commanded His Messenger (Peace be upon him) to establish his mosque in the location he precisely demarcated. The radiance of Islam advanced from it and spread to all directions of the earth. Oppression and tyranny were expulsed by its magnificent brilliance, along with the oppressors and their injustice.

Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah has been a centre of tradition and heritage since ancient times. This is especially in the fields of academics and sociological refinement and advancement. Many native scholars went forth from it to spread knowledge. At the same time, many scholars and students came to it from the east and west, from the ends of the earth, in search of knowledge, which they found in the lessons held in the Prophet's Mosque.

What emerged from Al-Madinah was one Islamic culture. Through the long centuries the residents of the city have inherited this and it is apparent in their demeanor and nature. What is of an age except what visitors to Al-Madinah have written about it and about what they found of the mild manner and sociable, noble conduct of the Madinan people.

Located in Madinah, is the Prophet's Mosque (Masjid Al Nabawi), the second most important mosque in Islam, after the Grand Mosque (Al-Haram), in Makkah Al-Mukarramah. It has a long and important history. The first Muslim community flourished in Madinah. The Muslims, who were persecuted in Makkah, by the Quraish tribe, emigrated to it. When the Prophet (Peace be upon him) himself emigrated to Madinah in 622 A.D., it became the capitol of the emerging Islamic state. Muslims from all over the world visit it, grasping the opportunity afforded them to offer prayers in it and to extend their salutations upon the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him), who is taking rest in the chamber in which he left us. The chamber was next to the mosque at that time, but has since been incorporated into the mosque with a subsequent expansion.

First, Islam spread all over the Arabian Peninsula and then, to the adjacent countries. Madinah remained the capitol of the Islamic state until the end of the era of the Raashidi Caliphate, in the year 661 A.D., (corresponding to the 40th year after the Hijrah {emigration}). The capitol of the Islamic State was then shifted to Damascus, with the move of the Ummayyad Caliphate. 

In Madinah there are other important places of Islamically legal, historic and cultural significance, which have been painstakingly preserved, to visit. Among them are: Qubaa' Mosque, Qablatain Mosque, Baqi'a Al-Gharqad, and the Graves of the Martyrs of the Battle of Uhud, which is near Mount Uhud.


Prophet's Mosque (Masjid Al-Nabawi)
Green Dome side


Prophet's Mosque (Masjid Al-Nabawi)
Bab Al-Salam side 


Prophet's Mosque (Masjid Al-Nabawi)
Bab Al-Baqie side 


Martyrs of Uhad and Mount Uhad
Three miles to the north of Madinah is the mountain about which the Mesenger of Allah (SAW) said "Uhad is a mountain that loves us and we love it." The "Ghazwah Uhud" (war) took place here in the year 3 A.H. it is mustahabb to visit martyrs of Uhud, the mountain itself and its mosques on Thursday after the Fajr prayers. The grave of Hazrat Hamzah lies here, where one should offer salam. In this battle precious teeth of beloved Prophet(PBUH) also got hurt.


Mountain Uhad, West Side


Mountain Uhad, East Side


Mountain Uhad, Bowmen Hill


Masjid Quba
It is about two miles south-west from Masjid-an Nabawi. This is the very first mosque of the muslims. The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and his companions built it with their own hands. This is the first mosque in the history of Islam whose foundation stone was laid down by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) himself on his migration to Madinah. To offer 2 rakaats of nafl in it is equal to one Umrah.


Masjid Qiblatain
It is situated to the north-west near the valley Aqiq. In this mosque, Allah directed Prophet Muhammad (SAW) , who was in the middle of a salaat along with "sahaba karam", to turn his face from Islam's first qibla, "Bait-ul-Muqqadis", (Masjid Alaqs in Jerusalem) to "Ka'ba" in "Masjid al-Haram" in Makka. Consequently, this mosque is known as a mosque with two qiblas.


Masjid Fath / Masjid Ahzab
It is on the western corner of Jabl Sala'. When the unbelievers had united together in the Ghazwah Ahzab and attacked Madinah and the trench was dug, the Messenger of Allah made a supplication for three days. Allah granted the prayer and the muslims emerged victorious.

Masjid Quba


Masjid Qiblatain


Masjid Fath/Masjid Ahzab

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اللهم صل على محمد وعلى آل محمد
كما صليت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد
اللهم بارك على محمد وعلى آل محمد
كما باركت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد

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وآخر دعواهم أنِ الحمد لله ربِّ العالمين  


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