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Dāiyah

Woman in Islam

Status of Woman in Islam 



It is imperative upon the (forthcoming) Islamic government, and before that the Islamic movement, to honour and observe the status of woman, for she represents one half of the society – by convention – whereas statistics indicate that women generally exceed men in number.  The Qur'anic verses concerning woman, as well as the reports from the purified traditions of the Messenger of Allah (S) address the status of woman just as they do concerning man.


 

Allah states in the holy Qur'an:

For Muslim men and women, for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for true men and women, for men and women who are patient and constant, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in charity, for men and women who fast (and deny themselves), for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah's praise, for them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward.[2]

and

and if you were to communicate with them, do so . . [And when ye ask (his ladies) for anything ye want ask them from before a screen][3]

and

and that they should draw their veils over their bosoms.[4]

and

And stay in your houses, and make not a dazzling display, like that of the former Times of Ignorance[5]

and

and for them is like what is (a duty) upon them . . . And women shall have rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable; but men have a degree over them.[6]

Both the East and the West have insulted woman.  The world before Islam had also insulted woman but this is not our concern as it has passed and it is well documented in the books of history.

As for the insults to woman by the modern world, it is manifested in a number of aspects such as:

       1.         Making her an object of man's (sexual) desire, not recognising her as a human being who has her own honour and dignity.  Those who call for non-covering of women and for revealing her body and her beauty, they do so only for sexual pleasures and desires and nothing more.

       2.         Turning her into a product or the means to sell their products and to gain their political, social and economic gains.  Therefore you see woman appearing naked or half-naked on cans, newspapers and magazines, on television and so on.  Is this respect for woman?

       3.         Turning her into a prostitute, this can be seen even with schoolgirls, in addition to the overt brothels, which are widespread throughout the countries of the world.  In some countries where they are not allowed to operate openly, the brothels operate secretly, and the result is the same.

       4.         To engage her in rough and physically demanding jobs which are inconsistent with hertenderness.  On top of that she is then paid less than her male counterpart, which was discussed in Remnants of the Islamic Civilization as I saw it[7].

       5.         Her deprivation, in many cases, from having a warm and loving family.  This is partly due to the fact that woman became available for man's sexual desires everywhere, and many young men do not therefore feel the responsibility to form families and carry the “burden”.

       6.         Women remaining unmarried in many cases.

All of these cause mental and physical stresses and illnesses as proven by psychiatrists and medical scientists.  Of course society may provide some help but this is not addressing the root of the problem.

On the other hand Hijaab stands as a barrier to many of the problems mentioned here.  In this way woman does not face those demanding problems, thus giving her dignity and respect as a human being, and as an equal partner to man.  Hijaab would strengthen the bond between the husband and his wife by reducing the temptation of meeting other women freely.  In this way the family would live in an atmosphere of love and tranquillity.

A poet once claimed:

This Hijaab is a heavy burden,

which has come between woman and humanity,

Imprisoning them in the house has failed,

This person also said that just as men are allowed to marry four wives, women should also be allowed to marry four husbands.  When it was said to him that in this case let your wife marry another three men, he was rather shaken and retracted to what he had published in this respect.

In fact it should be said:

This Hijaab is a gracious thing,

Gentle breeze blows from it unto human being.

In it there is honour for women all,

You will not see any brothel in the country at all.

Another individual resembled Hijaab as a bag on woman, and that it is like the shroud used for the dead, used by women when they are alive.  The person in question here is the Shah of Iran.  By saying this he wanted nothing but to abuse her, and satisfy his ego and desires.  He degraded women to the utmost degree.  During his reign, brothels were widespread in Iranian cities.  The number of divorce cases became increasingly high and the number of unmarried men and women rocketed.

Therefore if a nation wanted the respect of women and the closure of brothels, and if it wanted to rescue women from the indignity of being a commodity, and an advert, and repel the diseases from them, and if it wanted to distance them from abuse and the abusers and join them into the warmth of the family as another sister, daughter and wife it is imperative to pay attention to Hijaab.  Not the Hijaab in the sense that is proclaimed by those who want to satisfy their desires through their deprivation and imprisonment.  But theHijaab as defined by the Book and the Sunnah and as implemented by the Messenger of Allah (S) and the Infallible Imams.  The Hijaab is contributing to the marriage of the young woman, to the love of their husbands towards them, to the stability of the family, to the good upbringing of the children, to the health of the society; physically and mentally, and so forth. 

       1.         As for it being a contributing factor to the marriage of young women, when young men do not freely have the opportunity to satisfy their sexual desires (after meeting the girls) in mixed schools and swimming pools, cinemas, clubs, and wine bars, they would consider the option of marriage more seriously.

       2.         As for the Hijaab being a contributing factor to an increasing husbands' love towards women, when the husband does not see any woman other than his wife, his fervour towards her would greatly intensify and such zealousness is one of the most important factors in mutual love.  For such reasons, for example, Islam discourages fondling between the partners while totally naked, as a means of intensifying and/or maintaining his vigour towards her even after sex.

       3.         As for it contributing to the stability of the family, with Hijaab prevailing in the society, the husband does not see / meet women more attractive than his wife, who would tempt him to the extent that this shatters the family by leaving his wife for someone else, leading to separation and divorce.  In this way the family remains secure and peaceful, both of which can be seen in chaste Islamic countries, where divorce cases are very few because of Hijaab and family stability.  Whereas in western countries the divorce rate and break-up of families are so high that they have become a serious cause for concern for the leaders and intellectuals of those societies.  Like the western countries, some Islamic countries that have followed the trends and copied the policies of the west in their treatment of women, promiscuity, etc. these countries have also suffered such difficult problems.

       4.         As for Hijaab being a contributing factor for the good upbringing of children, a woman who is not the subject of abuse and undignified treatment by abusers and perverts would be more concerned and devoted to her children and family than that woman who has thrown the Hijaab away and made friends and relationships with other men.

       5.         As for the diseases, it has been mentioned earlier brothels and nightclubs are the pits of diseases, which spread those diseases throughout the community.  It is natural that those pits, which have proliferated throughout many countries of the world, spread those ills throughout the community.  Disturbing figures and statistics are published in this regard, but analyses of those statistics are beyond the scope of this article.

On the other hand, in Islam there are the concepts of polygamy, the difference in the inheritance and compensation rates, the witness arrangement, the man being regarded as the maintainer, and that she cannot be a judge or a leader for men.  In all these cases if there were no such legislation it would have led to the oppression of man as well as woman. In the following the reasons for the above are discussed to show benefits of the system proposed by Islam and the harm done by the systems of East and West.

       1.         As for polygamy, one may ask when a man marries his second, third, and forth wives, are they single or married?  Obviously they are single.  Now which one of the two options are preferable, that the second, third and forth remain unmarried and without a husband or with one?  Therefore if we did not have the law of polygamy, there would have been oppression and injustice to her, and secondly oppression to the man who has the ability to manage physically, mentally and materially.  Why should such potential and ability be wasted?  Of course there have been men who have mistreated and abused women in this process.  This is of course deviation from justice and a manifestation of oppression, but this is not always the case.  In Chad for example, polygamy is even practiced by Christians, and the pope has exceptionally allowed them that.  In that country usually not a single woman remains unmarried, since men do not abuse the woman if they are the second, third or fourth wife.  The wives conduct their affairs as if they were sisters within one family, with harmony and conformity between them.

       2.         As for the lower rate of inheritance, this is not always the case.  It can be seen in Islamic jurisprudence that depending on the circumstances, woman's inheritance could be less than, equal to  andgreater than that of man's.[8]  In general when man's inheritance has been prescribed to be more thanwoman's, this is because man's duties have been set to be greater than woman's.  {The male's share is twice the female's}[9].  In general, the woman's expense, whether a daughter, a mother or a wife, is the responsibility of the man.  Therefore he is given the greater share to discharge his responsibilities.  The reason that woman's expense and maintenance is given to man is because he has been assigned the task of working and income generation and the woman primarily has been assigned the task of upbringing, education, and management of the house.  And this is in accordance with their nature respectively.  Therefore it is not justice to give equally as far as financial affairs are concerned.

       3.         And this is the reason behind her lower compensation.  It is purely based on economic factors, not the man and woman not being equal as human beings.  That is whoever has less duties receives less, so that the two issues are complemented.

       4.         As for the role of the maintainer being given to man, the society needs a manager to manage its affairs, even for a small community such as a family.  Therefore the community cannot go without any of leadership of either the man or the woman or both of them together.  The issue of leadership may on one hand be given to the man, or to the woman or to both of them, or on the other hand there may be no leadership at all.  If it is given to man, it will be within his intellectual ability.  If it is given to woman, it will be the case of giving an intellectual task to a generally sentimental and emotional individual.  If it were given to both, it would result into dispute and quarrel.  As for the fourth case, it means that the society is not managed.  Therefore the best viable option left to any community is the first.

       5.          As for the condition of being a witness, since she is usually more sentimental and emotional than man, she is more emotionally involved and has a stronger sense of sentimentality.  In turn makes her better qualified for the role of upbringing and education of children as well as the management of the affairs of the home, which do not demand toughness.  Sentimentality contradicts the rationality of (giving) witness, and for this reason Allah the Almighty states: If one of them errs the other can remind her. . .[10]

       6.         And for the above reason, the aspect of her suitability for leadership and judiciary is raised.  As further evidence for this, despite the fact that according to the law of East and West woman can stand for leadership and judiciary, she did not manage to manage to fill these posts except for rare cases.  This is where she has had the opportunity, according to the law, to fill these posts.  Of course the rare and the few are no proof (for her suitability for such posts.)

On the other hand, although she does not have rights like man as mentioned earlier (due to her nature of being more affectionate and, having less economical responsibility[11] than man), she has many other rights than man.  For example; fighting in combat is not obligatory upon her, Friday prayers are optional for her, her punishment for blasphemy is less than man's, and she receives dowry in marriage.  In general she receives maintenance support from her father, son or husband, she can demand payment for breast-feeding.  Furthermore she also reaches adolescence at an earlier age then man; which is advantageous to her since her social personality and economic status materialises at the age of ten whereas man gains such rights and status at the age of about 15.  On the other hand she physically retires earlier than man.

Apart from the above mentioned cases of differences, man and woman are usually treated equally in all cases of worship; such as purity, prayers, fasting, Hajj, Zakat, Khums, solitude prayers in Mosques, etc.  She is of course excused from such duties as prayers during the menstruation and puerperium periods, in recognition for the duty she has in managing the house/family and the children's education, etc. since every right is coupled with an obligation and vice versa.

Woman is also equal to man in dealing and trading, and so too in the laws of procurement of the permissible, teaching, learning, earning, being a manager or a physician, or a nurse or a prayer leader for women, etc.  Woman is also equal to man in punishment and compensation except for the exceptional cases that were mentioned previously.  Woman is equal to man in making wills, guardianship over children if their father dies, etc.

Woman is entitled to all the freedoms man is entitled to, some one hundred of them are listed in the book The New Order for the World of Faith, Freedom, Prosperity and Peace[12] Those freedoms are quoted here for the convenience of the reader.  The list of freedoms is the:

Freedom of selling, of buying[13], of loan security, of surety, to make any new kind of contracts not prohibited by Islamic jurisdiction, of bail, of arbitration or settlement, of forming a partnership, of investment (Mudahrabah)[14], of farming investment[15], of irrigation investment[16], to procure the land (for any kind of development)[17], to procure anything permissible[18], to make a deposit (of any kind) for safekeeping, of borrowing, of letting, to make a power of attorney, to make an endowment, of a benevolent trust fund, to give alms to charity, to make a gift, to make a conditional or unconditional donation, of abode, of time-limited abode, of racing, of archery (for women only, where they cannot be seen by men.), to make a will, to marry, to divorce (if the woman had laid the precondition prior to their marriage that she has the attorney on behalf of her husband in the case of her divorce.), to exercise Khol'a[19] divorce, of annulment; if there were the criteria for annulment, of breast-feeding, to travel, to settle in a place; if she was not married, or that she had preconditioned this right prior to their marriage, to open a shop, of admission (of guilt), to give prizes etc to the winner of a competition, to publishing, in the amount of dowry and all other particulars of marriage, to practise any desired vocation; which is not prohibited by Islam, to pursue useful knowledge (for herself or other people or animals or plants, etc.) with the result of becoming a doctor, engineer, lawyer, or political or economic expert or otherwise or to become a religious scholar or lecturer or writer etc. (She cannot become a religious leader, Marje', as mentioned earlier.) of responsibility of oath, of vows, to partake of permitted food in any way desired, to revive the barren land[20], to exercise the right of pre-emption, of inheritance, just as man inherits, according to Islamic law.  She is also inherited.  For the Prophet (S) said: Whoever dies leaving a family with no guardian then it is my responsibility and whoever dies leaving wealth behind then it belongs to the heir. According to the criteria mentioned in the book of Inheritance[21].  (This is in contrast to the man-made laws, which can make up to ninety per cent of the legacy to go to the government, as is well known), to consult any legal judge[22], to testify (in front of a particular judge) and seek the testimony of others, to demand blood money, or to seek punishment or to forgive, in the particular cases, to practise agriculture, to manufacture, of construction, for a person to be without nationality or identity or other formalities that are commonplace now, which if Islam assumed power would abolish them all, as discussed previously.  To publish a newspaper, to publish a magazine, to own a radio broadcasting station, to own a television broadcasting station, to express an opinion, of meeting/gathering, to form a trade union for women, to form associations for women, to form organisations for women, to elect.[23]  (The author has mentioned in the book of theNew Order[24] that a woman may elect or be elected for women associations), to choose any occupation or employment, which does not go against the Islamic teaching or which does not contradict Islamic teaching, to give birth to any number of children, i.e. the husband may not force her in this respect.  The freedom of beliefs, Allah Almighty has said: There is no compulsion in religion'.  The freedom of type of food and drink consumed and clothes worn etc.  The freedom to build mosques, to build schools, to build religious centres, to build hospitals, to build clinics, to build publishing houses, to build cultural establishments, to build hostels and hotels, to build maternity units, to build old peoples houses, to set up banks, to join a students' union in schools for women, to leave any institution or position of employment, to furnish a house or shop in any way, to select any type of vehicle required, of (any deal or contract) interaction with others, to make or accept a loan, to grant the custody of any endowment or entailed estate to anyone, for anyone to choose a name for anyone or any place associated with him/her, to set up poultry farms, to follow the rulings of any competent religious authority desired, to choose any lecturer/preacher desired, to record any contract with any religious scholar.

to many other freedoms in Islam to which both women and men are equally entitled according to Islamic law.  Whereas we see that in the East and West men and women do not have such freedom . . . an individual does not have his freedom since s/he is restricted by passport, id card, nationality, etc. Similarly a man or woman is restricted by exit or entry visa, or by custom and excise or various taxes. An individual is restricted even by burial regulations, land and property registration, marriage registration, and the suppression of freedom through the secret services. Furthermore an individual does not enjoy the freedom of setting businesses, or factories except after seeking approval and permission from the authorities concerned, etc. and the list goes on of the restrictions that suppress the freedom of their movements, dealing and trading, etiquette and coexistence. 

For these reasons it became clear that Islam gave woman her natural rights and has respected and honoured her by giving her the like of which the East and West has never given to her.

Furthermore, the West has insulted woman to the utmost degree, to the extent that she has never been insulted in this way even in primitive societies. 

It may be said that ignorant people used to kill their daughters.  The reply is that they used to kill their sons too as stated in the Qur'an:

“Kill not your children on a plea of want - We provide sustenance for you and for them.”[25]  and

Kill not your children for fear of want: We shall provide sustenance for them as well as for you verily the killing of them is a great sin.[26]  as well as

And when the female (infant), buried alive, is questioned,[27]

Therefore the Islamic government, and before that the Islamic movement, must take a number of measures to address the honour and dignity of woman as well as other aspects of her concern: 

  1. arranging for the correct religious and modern education for girls.
  2. educating and helping young women to get married so that they do not remain unmarried,
  3. providing maternity and nursery centres,
  4. engaging them in all aspects of society except for those mentioned above, which Islam does not prescribe for them in the interest of her nature and correct society,
  5. to organise their affairs under the umbrella of the Marje' or “Religious Authority” – so that they are not deviated by Eastern and Western organisations and decadent networks,
  6. engaging them in respectful professions according to their ability and their spare time, since their economic status will ensure their social status,
  7. building mosques, religious and other centres especially for women.  In the holy city of Medina, Prophet Muhammad (S) appointed Omm Waraqah as the prayer leader of women, in parallel with the prayers he led.  Also during the reign of Imam Ali (A) there were mosques for women only in the capital city, Kufa.
  8. ensuring adequate cohort of women to study religious sciences so that there are enough women preachers, lecturers, writers and teachers for other women.
  9. providing special arrangements for the entertainment of the elderly, whom are referred to in the Qur'anas the Qawa'ed.  This is so that they do not feel estranged and depressed.  In fact it is wrong to establish“Old People's Homes”, but these women must remain within the community, honoured and respected in their homes and with their children and grandchildren.  To place them in the old people's homes is a practical statement of what society thinks about them.  And this is the greatest insult to them.  This should also be the case for the male elderly too. 
  10. special care and attention should be paid to divorced women until they are married again.  This should also be applicable to widows and women whose marriage has been nullified etc.
  11. to allocate special funds for all woman's affairs and needs from the cradle to the grave.
  12. rescuing women who are engaged in immoral practices, who have fallen prey to Eastern and Western organisations or are victims of corrupt communities, and facilitating their return to be honourable women by arranging for them to get married and lead honourable lives – just as Imam Ali (A) did when he assumed the office of government in Kufa.
  13. to help women solve their problems with their relatives and family members or any other social problems.
  14. to respect and honour woman in a dignified manner, and not to insult them in any way.  There has been a trend of disrespect to women when, for example, during specific times, women are not allowed to enter some holy sites.  Or they are asked to leave the mosques when over crowded.  The Messenger of Allah (S) is the model and example in all his words, practice and confirmation.  The Messenger of Allah (S) established the Hajj for both men and women together.  Women used to attend his speeches in mosques with the men and also to perform prayers.  When he travelled or even go to war, he used to allow women to accompany him.  All such cases are reported in various narration and history documents.  All of these point to the honour and respect the Messenger of Allah (S) held for women.  At the end of this article, a number of reports and narrations concerning the status of woman are presented, with the help of Allah the Almighty:

Imam Saadiq (A) is reported as saying: The Messenger of Allah (S) said: the best of the children are the girls: (for they are) soothing,  amiable, blissful.

Imam Saadiq (A) is reported as saying: The Messenger of Allah (S) said: he who provides maintenance and sustenance for three daughters or three sisters, his entrance to heaven is guaranteed.  The Messenger of Allah (S) was asked what about two?  He said even two.  He was asked what if only one, the Messenger of Allah (S) replied even if only one.

Imam Saadiq (A) said: he who provides maintenance for and sustains two daughters or two sisters, or two aunties, they will protect him from the hellfire.

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying:  he who has three daughters and has persevered over their hardship, distress and happiness they will protect him on the day of judgement.

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying: he who sustained and provided for three daughters or three sisters and persevered with their hardship until they marry or pass away, then he and I are like these two, pointing to his index and middle fingers.  The Messenger of Allah (S) was asked what if there were two, he (A) replied even if two.  He was asked again what if there was one, the Messenger of Allah (S) replied even if one. 

In a conversation with Imam Saadiq (A) one of his companions expressed his disappointment that his wife has given birth to a baby girl.  Imam Saadiq (A) said to him “you may be unhappy about this” but Allah states:

Ye know not whether your parents or your children are nearest to you in benefit.[28]

In another report, a man was with the Messenger of Allah (S) when he was informed that his wife had given birth to a baby girl.  He was visibly unhappy and the Messenger of Allah (S) asked him for the reason for this.  The man told him of the news.  The Messenger of Allah (S) said to the man the earth supports her, the sky shelters her, Allah sustains her and she is a reyhaaneh (sweet smelling plant).

One of the companions of Imam Saadiq (A) said that the Imam protested to me saying I have heard that you are displeased with your daughter.  What has she done to you?  She is like a reyhaaneh (sweet smelling plant) who is sustained by Allah, and the Messenger of Allah (S) was the father of many daughters.

In another report, one of the companions, whose wife had given birth to a baby girl, went to see ImamSaadiq.  When the Imam saw him unhappy about it asked him If Allah had revealed to you that either I choose for you or you choose for yourself, which one would you opt for?  The man replied I would say O Lord you choose for me.  The Imam then replied Allah has chosen for you.   The Imam then went on to say In the story of Moses who accompanied the guide/scholar who killed the son of the family as reported in theQur'an: So we desired that their Lord would give them in exchange (a son) better in purity (of conduct) and closer in affection.[29]  Allah replaced the son with a daughter whom amongst her off springs there was seventy prophets.

In another report, one of the companions of Imam Saadiq said to the Imam “I have many daughters.  The Imam said you might wish that they died.  If you wish that they died they would die, you will not be rewarded on the day of judgement and when you meet your Lord you will do so while you are disobedient.

Imam Ridha (A) reports that the Messenger of Allah (S) said: Allah Almighty is kinder to the female than the male, and any man who pleases a woman who is mahram[30] to him, Allah will please him on the day of judgement. 

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying He who had a daughter, Allah will help and support him, and (Allah) would aid him in his resurrection and would forgive him.

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying He who maintains and provides sustenance for threedaughters, he will be given three gardens in the heaven, each of which is bigger than the world and whatever in it.

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying He who has one daughter, she would be better for him than one thousand Hajj pilgrimages[31], and one thousand jihad in the cause of Allah, and one thousand camels . . . .

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying The best of offsprings are daughters (who adhere to) wearing Hijaab, and he who has one daughter, Allah will make her his protection from the hellfire.  And he who has two daughters, by them Allah will admit him into heaven.  And he who has three daughters or three sisters, Allah will wave his duty if Jihad and (giving) charity. 

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying The best of your children are your daughters

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying there is no house with girls in it but descends upon it every day 12 blessings and mercy from heaven; and the visits by angels to that house does not stop. Every day and every night they (the angels) record for the father of the girls the prayers and worship of the entire year.

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying He who provides maintenance for and sustains one or two daughters, on the day of judgement he will be with me like these two, [pointing to his index and middle fingers aligned together.

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying He who buys gifts and carries them to his family, (his reward is as if) he is carrying charity to the needy.  When he gives the presents, he should start with the females before the males.  Truly he who pleases a daughter it is as if he frees a slave of the sons of Ismael, and he who pleases (his) son, it is as if he weeps in fear of Allah, and he who weeps in fear of Allah, Allah admits him into the heaven. 

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying he who has a daughter and he does not neglect and does not insult her and does not favour his son over her, Allah admits him in heaven.

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying the best of you (are those who are) the best to your wives and daughters

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying (The Archangel) Gabriel continued to command me about the issue of women to the extent that I started to suspect that divorcing them is going to be banned (on instruction from Allah the Almighty).

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying woman is a reyhanah (delicate being) and not a qahramanah(tough warrior)

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying, Suffice a man the sin of abandoning those whom he provides for.

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying My brother (Archangel) Gabriel has informed me, and he continues to advise me about women to the point that I began to suspect that her husband is not allowed to say Fie (UF  a word of contempt) to her. (Archangel Gabriel said) O Muhammad, (tell your people to) Fear Allah the Almighty in (their treatment of) women, for they are (a responsibility) in your hands.  You have taken them on the trust of Allah the Almighty, and you were lawfully allowed to approach them by the word of Allah and His book, and by the tradition and the law of Muhammad ibn Abdullah (A).  They have a mandatory right upon you for the lawful permission you have to touch them.  They carry your children in their bodies until overwhelmed by the pain of labour.  Therefore be kind to them and make them happy so that they stand by you.  Do not force women and do not annoy them.  Do not take from them anything that you have given them unless with their permission and that of their family.

Imam Saadiq (A) is reported as saying In one evening thirty women came to the Messenger of Allah (S) complaining to him about their husbands.  The Messenger of Allah (S) said Truly those (husbands) are not amongst your best.””

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying “A man is the guardian of his household, and every custodian is responsible for his flock, and the woman is the custodian of her husband's wealth and responsible for it.”

Imam Kadhem (A) quotes Amir-ul-Mu'minin (A) instructing his followers By Allah, by Allah (take care about) women and the slaves (under your order), for the final words of the Messenger of Allah (S) were: I instruct you about the two weak (individuals), the women and the slaves.””

There also many other traditions and reports which instruct us about giving more favour and kindness to mothers than fathers, for the mother being affectionate and sentimental and therefore needs more care and attention. 

Imam Sajjad (A) reports that a man said to the Messenger of Allah (S) O Messenger of Allah, there was not a foul deed but I have done it, is there any way for to repent?  The Messenger of Allah (S) said is any of your parents alive?  The man replied my father.  The Messenger of Allah (S) said to the man: Go and be kind to him.  When the man left the Messenger of Allah (S) said, if only his mother was alive.

Imam Ridha is reported as saying Be sure that the right of the mother is the most obligatory of rights and most mandatory.  For she carried when no one would carry anyone, and this is at a time when her eyes and ears and every part of her body were wholeheartedly happy about that.  She carried him with all the difficulties that it entails which no one can bear.  She accepts hunger and thirst so that he is fed, she accepts that he is protected at her cost, and he is shaded and she is not, therefore all thanks be to her and kindness and affection be to her.  Truly you would not be able to thank her enough except with the help of Allah.

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying The Heaven is at the feet the mother.

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying At the feet of the mother is a garden from the gardens of the heaven.

The Messenger of Allah (S) is reported as saying If you were in a voluntary prayer, and if your father called you do not interrupt your prayers, if your mother called you, interrupt your prayers.

It is reported that a man asked the Messenger of Allah (S) “whom shall I be kind to?”  The Messenger of Allah (S) replied To your mother.  The man asked then whom, the Messenger of Allah (S) replied your mother, the man again asked then whom, the Messenger of Allah (S) replied your mother, the man asked again then whom, the Messenger of Allah (S) replied your father, and then other relatives, starting from the nearest ones.

It is reported that the Messenger of Allah (S) was asked about the right of the father, the Messenger of Allah (S) replied, (His right is) to obey him as long as he lives. He was asked, “what about the right of the mother?  The Messenger of Allah (S) replied, How impossible! How impossible! If the days of the world were equal to the number of the sand grains of the desert of Alaj, as well as the number of the rain drops, and he served his mother during this time, it would not equal one day she carried him in her womb.

It is reported that a man asked the Messenger of Allah (S) “who has most right to my best friendship?”, the Messenger of Allah (S) replied, Your mother The man asked then whom? Your mother The man again asked then whom? Your father.


[1] This article from is taken from the book of Islamic Governmentpp. 104-123, volume 102 of the al-Fiqhseries.

[2] The holy Qur'an: The Confederates (33): 35

[3] The holy Qur'an: The Confederates (33): 53

[4] The holy Qur'an: Light (24): 31

[5] The holy Qur'an: The Confederates (33): 33

[6] The holy Qur'an: The Heifer (2): 228

[7] by the author.

[8] Few examples are given below in this respect.  1. When a man dies and he leaves a father and a daughter, the father will inherit one-quarter (25%) and the daughter inherits three-quarters (75%) of the inheritance. So in this case the woman inherits three times as much man.   2. If a man dies and leaves a father and four daughters, each of the inheritors will receive 20% of the inheritance.  3. If a man dies and he leaves either one son or one daughter, he or she would receive the entire inheritance.

[9] The holy Qur'an: Women (4): 11

[10] The holy Qur'an: the Heifer (2): 282

[11] For example, although she can work and earn income, and although she receives inheritance, she is not obliged to spend any of her money or wealth on anyone including her family.  The maintenance of the family is the responsibility of man.

[12] By the author.

[13] E.g. no VAT or any other form of taxation on goods.

[14] Mudahrabah is a business scheme where one party contributes the capital and the other labour/expertise, and the profit/loss of the venture is divided between them according to a previously agreed ratio.

[15] This scheme is similar to that above with the difference that one party provides the farmland and the other the workforce.  Similarly the profit/loss of the venture is divided between them according to a previously agreed ratio.

[16] This scheme is similar to that above with the difference that one party provides the farm and the other agrees to irrigate it. The profit/loss of the venture is divided between them according to a previously agreed ratio.

[17]    without the need for any permission from any authority.

[18]    e.g. fishing, mining, etc without the need for any permission from any authority.

[19] This kind of divorce is initiated by the woman in exchange for waiving some of her rights.

[20] Without the need for any permission to do so from any authority or for any payment in exchange for the use/possession of that land.

[21] M. Shirazi, Inheritance, al-Fiqh series, volumes 82-83.

[22] For example to have his case dealt with a particular judge rather than other judges.

[23] There is no age limit for individuals to vote or take part in any election, i.e. children have the right to take part in elections too.

[24] “The New Order for the World of Faith, Freedom, Prosperity and Peace”, by the author.

[25] The holy Qur'an: The Cattle (6): 151

[26] The holy Qur'an: The Ascension (17): 31

[27] The holy Qur'an: The Extinguishments  (81): 8

[28] The holy Qur'an: Women (4): 11.

[29] The holy Qur'an: The Cave (18): 81.

[30] Mahram woman to a man is like his mother, sister, aunts, niece, and grandmothers. The opposite relatives are mahram to a woman.

[31] The Hajj that is not the obligatory first one. Translator.


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اللهم صل على محمد وعلى آل محمد
كما صليت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد
اللهم بارك على محمد وعلى آل محمد
كما باركت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد

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وآخر دعواهم أنِ الحمد لله ربِّ العالمين  

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