The Sunnah before attending the Eid prayers
Hazrat'e Anas narrated, ''On the day of Eid-ul-Fitr, The Holy Prophet did not go to the Eid Gah (place of Eid prayer) until he had eaten a few dates in odd numbers.'' (Sahih Bukhaari, V2, P4)
Hazrat'e Buraida said, ''On the day of Eid-ul-Fitr, The Holy Prophet did not go to the Eid Gah without eating and on Eid-ul-Adha he would not eat anything until after Salaah.'' (Tirmizi, Hadith No. 542, V2, P70)
The Sunnah of Departing and returning from the Eid prayer
It is narrated by Hazrat'e Abu Huraira the Holy Prophet would go to read Eid Salaah using one path and would return from another (Tirmizi, Hadith No. 541, V2, P69).
The method of Eid Salaah (Hanafi)
Following intention should be made: ''I intend offering two rak'ats of Eid-ul-Fitr (or Eid-ul-Adha) Salaah with six Takbeers for Allah behind this Imam.'' After making this intention, start the Salaah by raising the hands up to the ears and saying Allahu-Akbar and then folding the hands. Recite the thanaa' and then say Allahu-Akbar three times. Each time you say Allahu-Akbar, you should raise your hands to your ears just as you do for Takbeer-e-Tehreemah. After saying each Takbeer, let your hands rest by your sides. In between each Takbeer, you should pause to such an extent that you can read Sub'haanAllah three times. After the third Takbeer, you should not rest your hands but fold them. Remember it in this way that wherever something is read after Takbeer, the hands are folded and wherever something is not read the hands will be rested at the sides. (Makhoozaaz Dar-e-Mukhtaar, Rad-ul-Muhtaar, V3, P66) The Imam should then read ta'awwuz and tas'miyah quietly and Surah Fatiha and another Surah loudly. After this perform the Ruku'. In the second Rak'at, the Imam should first recite Surah Fatiha and another Surah aloud. After this, he should say three Takbeers but after the third Takbeer he should not fold his hands but instead leave them at his sides. He should then say one more Takbeer without raising the hands and go into Ruku'. (Fatawa Alamgeeri, V1, P150)
Upon whom is the prayer of Eid essential (wajib)?
The Salaah of both Eids (Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha) are Wajib (essential) (Fatawa Alamgeeri, V1, P149), but not upon everyone. Eid Salaah is only Wajib for those people upon whom Jumu'ah Salaah is Wajib. There is neither Azan nor Iqaamat in the Salaah of both Eids. (Al Hidaya ma' Fath-al-Qadeer, V2, P39)
The Sermon of Eid is Sunnah
The conditions that have been mentioned for Jumu'ah (Friday) Salaah, apply for the Eid Salaah as well. With the exception that for the Jumu'ah Salaah the sermon is a condition, while for the Eid Salaah it is Sunnah. Furthermore,
the Jumu'ah sermon is delivered before the Salaah while for the Eid Salaah, the sermon is delivered after. (Khulaasa-tul-Fatawa, V1, P213)
The time for Eid prayer
The time for the Eid Salaah starts when the sun has risen above the height of a spear, as seen by the naked eye, and continues until the sun is approaching its zenith or 20-25 minutes after sunrise. However it is desirable to
slightly delay the Eid-ul-Fitr Salaah and desirable to read Eid-ul-Adha Salaah early. (Khulaasa-tul-Fatawa, V1, P214)
If one finds himself in the middle of the Jama'at
If a person joins the Eid Salaah at a time when the Imam has already completed saying the Takbeers, then if he joined the jama'at while they were still in the standing posture, he should immediately make the Takbeers even if the Imam is busy with his qira'at. If he joins the Salaah while the Imam is in Ruku', he should make his Takbeers only if he feels that he will be able to catch up with the Imam in his Ruku'. But if he fears that he will not be able to catch up with the Imam, he should go straight into Ruku'. Instead of reading the tasbeehs in the Ruku', he should recite the Takbeers. However, when he makes the Takbeers in his Ruku', he should not raise his hands. If the Imam stands up from the Ruku' before he can complete his Takbeers, he should not try to complete them. Instead, he should stand up with the Imam. The Takbeers which he missed will be forgiven. If a person misses the first rak'at of Eid Salaah and when he stands up to complete it, he should first recite Surah Fatiha, another Surah and then make the Takbeers. Although, according to the rule he ought to have made the Takbeers first, however he should not do this because if he does this, then the takbeers of both the rak'ats will come one after the other. (Makhoozaaz Dar-e-Mukhtaar, Rad-ul-Muhtaar, V3, P55-57)
If the congregation of Eid is not found then what should you do?
If the Imam has read the Salaah and somebody remained behind whether he missed the jama'at or joined the jama'at but for some reason his Salaah became void, he should read his Eid Salaah in the next available place. He cannot read it without a jama'at. It is better for that person to offer 4 rak'ats of Chaasht Salaah instead. (Durr-e-Mukhtaar, V3, P58, 59)
The rulings for the Eid sermon
After the Eid Salaah the Imam should read two sermons. The Sunnahs that apply to the Jumu'ah sermon are also applicable to the Eid sermon and what is disliked in the Jumu'ah sermon is also disliked in the Eid sermon. There is a difference of only two things. Firstly, it is Sunnah for the Imam to sit before the first sermon of Jumu'ah and in the Eid Salaah it is not. Secondly, in the Eid sermon it is Sunnah for the Imam to recite Allahu-Akbar 9 times before the first sermon and 7 times before the second sermon and 14 times before coming down from the pulpit and these are NOT Sunnah for Jumu'ah Salaah. (Durr-e-Mukhtaar, V3, P57-58 - Bahar-e-Shariat, Part 4, P109)
20 SUNNAHS OF EID
On Eid day these things are Sunnah:
- Cutting hair (cut your hair according to Sunnah and not according to the English styles).
- Cutting Nails.
- Having a bath.
- Doing Miswaak (cleaning of teeth with a Miswaak, this is apart from Miswaak done during ablution).
- Wear nice clothes, if new wear them, otherwise wear washed ones.
- To put Ittar on.
- Wearing a ring (whenever you wear a ring keep in mind that it should be not more than 4 grams, in weight of silver and wear only one ring. There should be only one stone in this ring. Don't wear a ring without a stone. There is no limit for the weight of the stone. A ring made of any other metal or another ring cannot be worn).
- Offer Salaah-tul-Fajr in the Masjid in your area.
- Before going to Eid-ul-Fitr Salaah, eating some dates - 3, 5, 7 or any amount. But they should be eaten in odd numbers. If dates are not available then eat something sweet. Even if nothing is eaten before the Salaah, it is not a sin but if nothing is eaten till Salaah-tul-Isha then he will be reprimanded.
- To offer Eid prayer in Eid Gah.
- To go walking to the Eid Gah.
- There is no harm in going on any sort of transport, but it is better to walk and there is no harm in coming back on any sort of transport.
- When going for Eid Salaah choose one path and when coming back come on from another path.
- Giving Sadqa-e-Fitr (charity) before Eid Salaah (it is better to give it before Eid Salaah but if that's not possible then give it after the Salaah).
- Showing happiness.
- Giving a lot of charity.
- To go to the Eid Gah relaxed and dignified, with eyes kept down.
- Congratulating each other.
- After Eid Salaah shaking hands. It is better to embrace one another, like the usual custom of the Muslims, since it shows affection.(Alhadiqa-tul-Nadya, V2, P150 – Maswi, V2, P221)
- While going for Eid-ul-Fitr Salaah, to say Takbeer quietly and while going for Eid-ul-Adha one should say the Takbeer loudly. The following is called Takbeer:
''Allah is most great. Allah is most great. There is no one else worth Worshipping except for Allah and Allah is most great. Allah is most Great and all the praise is for Allah.''
One desirable action of Eid-ul-Adha
The rulings of Eid-ul-Adha are very much similar to the rulings of Eid-ul-Fitr. There are however some differences. It is desirable not to eat anything before reading the Eid-ul-Adha Salaah whether or not he is giving Qurbani. If he did eat something its not a problem.
8 points about Takbeer-e-Tashreeq
The Takbeer :
''Allah is most great. Allah is most great. There is no Deity besides Allah and Allah is most Great. Allah is most Great and Verily all praises are for Allah.'' (Tanveer-ul-Absaar, Rad-ul-Muhtaar, V3, P701)
It is Wajib for the one that performs Salaah with the jama'at to recite this Takbeer loudly once and better to recite it 3 times after every Fard Salaah from the morning of the 9th of Dhul Hijjah (Day of Arafah) till Salaah-tul-Asr on the 13th of Dhul Hijjah. (Tabyee-nul-Haqaiq, V1, P227)
Takbeer-e-Tashreeq immediately becomes Wajib as soon as one ends his Salaah. If he comes out of the Masjid or deliberately breaks his Wuzu or even forgetfully starts talking then the Takbeer will become void and if the Wuzu was broken unintentionally then there is no harm in saying the Takbeer. (Durr-e-Mukhtaar, Rad-ul-Muhtaar, V3, P73)
Takbeer-e-Tashreeq is Wajib upon that person who is a resident of the town or city or upon whosoever has followed this resident whether that follower is a traveller or a resident of the town and if they don't follow him then it is not Wajib upon them (traveller and the resident). (Darr-e-Mukhtaar, Rad-ul-Muhtaar, V3, P74)
If the resident has followed the traveller then it is Wajib upon the resident but not upon that travelling Imam. (Darr-e-Mukhtaar, Rad-ul-Muhtaar, V3, P73)
The Takbeer is not Wajib to recite after Sunnah, Nafl and Witr prayers.
The Takbeer is Wajib to be recited after Jumu'ah Salaah and it should also be said after the Eid (baqar) Salaah
The Takbeer is also Wajib upon a Musbooq (the late comer who has missed one or more rak'ats of Salaah) but he should say it when he says Salaam and ends his Salaah. (Tabyee-nul-Haqaiq, V1, P227)
The Takbeer is not Wajib upon the Mufarid (person who is reading prayer individually) (Gunya-tul-Mustamli, P26) however he too should recite it because according to jurists it is Wajib for the individual person to recite too(Bahar-e-Shariat, Part 4, P111)