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Dāiyah

Foods

 Diet, Drugs, Smoking & Alcohol in Islam



A
Islam and Diet 

The Greatest Gift - The Human Body

Diet plays a very important role in the daily life of a believer. There are many verses in the Noble Qur’ân which draw man's attention towards his self and which invite him to carefully study his body and soul and the nature of their mutual relationship. By doing so, one will firstly find in it strong evidence of the existence of Allah and that Allah has not created mankind and all other beings of this world without any purpose as mentioned in the Noble Qur’ân:

“Our Lord! You have not created (all) this without purpose.” 
(3:191)

The Importance of Healthiness

It is therefore necessary to ensure that the physical body is kept healthy so that the soul and spirit may also remain healthy thus in turn aiding the believer in the service of both his spiritual and material attainment. Diet therefore, plays an important role for this purpose. For this reason Islam has prohibited certain foods due to their ill effects and permitted all other pure, good and clean food products. Allah Ta’ala says in the Noble Qur’ân:

“O’ Believers! Eat of the good and pure (lawful) that We have provided you with and be grateful to Allah, if you truly worship Him.” 
(2:172)

Muslims in general are advised to eat good and pure things and not to indulge in impure, bad and harmful things thus following their open enemy Shaitaan:

“O People! Eat of what is lawful and good on the Earth and do not follow the footsteps of Shaitaan, for he is your open enemy.” 
(2:168)

In the verses previously mentioned the general principle with regard to permissible foods has been stated. The Noble Qur’ân further goes on to specify the types of food prohibited in the following verse:

“He (Allah) has only forbidden you (from eating) dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that (animal) over which the name of other than Allah has been invoked.” 
(2:173, 16:115)

The four items that have been mentioned in the above verse are absolutely forbidden in Islam for reasons best known to Allah. However, through research, some of them such as carrion, blood and swine flesh have proved to be injurious to human health. Whilst swine flesh is harmful to moral health and food over which the name of any other than Allah has been invoked is harmful to spiritual health. 




Other prohibited items have also been mentioned in different chapters of the Holy Qur’ân. In Surah al-Ma’idah the following have also been mentioned along with the four previously mentioned. There are those animals which have been killed by strangling, or a violent blow, a headlong fall, being gored to death and those which have been partially eaten by a wild animal and not slaughtered before death, also those which have been sacrificed on the name of idols. 

A Balanced Diet - Prescribed in the Qur’ân

The Qur’ân has not restricted itself in merely mentioning the permissible and impermissible foods but goes to the extent of giving useful tips regarding a balanced diet, a diet which contains most if not all the useful ingredients required for the growth, strengthening and repairing of the human body. These ingredients include animal protein, fat, calcium, iron, salts, etc. The most balanced diets consist of meat, fish, fresh milk, cheese and fruit. Both direct and indirect references have been made regarding the afore mentioned.

The reference regarding the importance of meat protein in the human diet is given in the following verse: 

“And the cattle, He has created them for you, in them there is warmth (clothing) and numerous benefits, and of them you eat.” 
(16:5)

In this verse special reference has been given to the importance of eating despite having said, “…numerous benefits…”. Reference regarding other types of meat has also been given such as the meat of fowls in the following verse:

“And the flesh of fowls that they desire.” 
(56:21)

Fish has always been considered as a food of very high protein and is very important for human consumption. Allah says:

“And from them both (fresh and salt water) you eat fresh tender meat (fish).” 

(35:12)

The usefulness of fresh milk is stressed in these words:

“And verily in the cattle there is a lesson for you. We give you to drink of that which is in their bellies, from between excretion and blood, pure milk, palatable to the drinkers.” 

(16:66)

The benefits of fruits as good nourishment can be understood from this verse:

“And from the fruits of date palms and grapes, you desire strong drink and a goodly provision.” 
(16:67)

Similarly there are verses which cover the whole range of fruits, salads, and vegetables which also play an important role in a nutritious, balanced diet:

“It is He who sends down rain from the sky, and with it We bring forth vegetation of all kinds, and out of it We bring forth thick clustered grain. And out of the date palm and its spate come clusters of dates hanging low and near, and gardens of grapes, olives and pomegranates each similar (in kind) yet different (in variety and taste). Look at their fruits when then begin to bear, and the ripeness thereof.” 

(6:99)

Islam, being a complete religion, also teaches and advises the believer as to what the best method of eating is. The believers are advised to be moderate in every aspect of life. Direct reference has been made in the Noble Qur’ân regarding moderation in eating and drinking.

“And eat and drink, but waste not in extravagance, certainly He (Allah) likes not those who waste in extravagance.” 
(7:31)

Moderation - The Teachings of the ProphetSallallahu Alayhi Wassalm

The Best of Teachers and the Mercy of the Worlds Sallallahu Alayhi Wassalm is reported to have clarified the meaning and limit of moderation in a tradition in which he is reported to have said that one’s worst weakness is one’s belly. If you must eat make sure you fill one third of your stomach with food, one third with water and leave one third for air i.e. leave it empty.

In another narration, the reason for moderation has been clearly stated. The Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wassalm is reported to have said:

“The stomach is the tank of the body and the veins go down to it. When the stomach is healthy the veins come back in a healthy condition, but when it is in a bad condition, they return diseased.”

In short, believers are advised to always take care of their stomachs and refrain from foods and practices that might pollute the stomach with various diseases. In order to do so the Prophet Sallallahu Alayhi Wassalm is reported to have advised believers to always stop eating before their stomachs are completely full i.e. stop eating when the urge to eat more is still present.

B. Islam and Drugs

The young Muslims of today are facing an ever-increasing number of dilemmas. One of these is drugs. What does Islam have to say about it? How should Muslims regard drugs? To understand this we have to see what the Qur’aan and Ahaadith say regarding intoxicants i.e. narcotics. 

Allah Ta’ala states in the Holy Qur’aan: - 

O You who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones and (divination by) arrows are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork. Avoid (such abominations) that you may prosper. (5:90)

 Allah Ta’ala has described intoxicants amongst other things as being appalling, despicable and hateful acts of Satan and he has commanded us to abstain from them, Allah thereafter states in the next verse: - 

 Satan’s plan is to sow hatred and enmity amongst you with intoxicants and gambling, and to hamper you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. Will you not give up? (5:91)

This Aayah tells us how it is a detestable act of Satan, because intoxicants apart from sowing the seeds of enmity also stop you from the sole purpose of having been sent to the world, namely the remembrance of Allah. 

Bear in mind that when the term intoxicant is used it also encompasses narcotics, because they to among other things result in the loss of self-control. 

There are also many Ahaadith stated by the Holy Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in regards to intoxicants. 

1) Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Holy Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said, "Whosoever drinks wine, whip him. If he repeats it for the fourth time, kill him." He (Jabir) says, A man was later brought to the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) who had drunk wine for the fourth time. He beat him, but did not kill him. (Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood) 

The following Hadith clearly states that the Holy Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) prohibited intoxicants. 

2) Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings be upon him) said, "Every intoxicant is khamr (wine) and every intoxicant is haraam (unlawful). Whosoever drinks wine in this world and dies whilst consumed in it and does not repent will not drink it in the next world. (Muslim) 

3) Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that a man came from Yemen and asked the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) about a wine made from corn called ‘Mizr’, which they drank, in their land. The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) asked, "Is it intoxicating?" He replied, "Yes" The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said, "Every intoxicant is unlawful. Verily there is covenant upon Allah for one who drinks intoxicating drinks, that he will make him drink from ‘Teenatul Khabal,’ they asked, "O messenger of Allah, what is Teenatul Khabal?" He said, "The sweat of the inmates of hell or the pus (of impurities) of the inmates of hell." (Muslim) 

4) Abdullah ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said, "Whosoever drinks wine, Allah will not accept his prayer for 40 days. If he seeks repentance Allah will forgive him. And if he repeats it Allah will not accept his prayer for 40 days. If he seeks repentance Allah will forgive him. And if he repeats it again Allah will not accept his prayer for 40 days. If he seeks repentance Allah will forgive him. If he repeats it for the fourth time Allah will not accept his prayer for 40 days. If he seeks repentance Allah will not accept it and he will be made to drink from the river of impurities (of the inmates of hell). 

(Tirmidhi, Nasai, Ibn Majah and Daarami from Ibn Amr)
5) Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings be upon him) said; "Whatever intoxicates in a greater quantity is also unlawful in its smaller quantity." (Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah)   

6) Umme Salmah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings be upon him) prohibited every intoxicant and Mufattir (anything which excites and irritates the mind, body and heart). (Abu Dawood) 

7) Abdullah Ibn Amr t reports from the Prophet(Peace and blessings be upon him), who said, "One who is disobedient to parents, gambles, harsh after charity and a is a habitual drunkard shall not enter paradise." (Daarami) 

8) Abu Umaamah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings be upon him) said, "Verily Almighty Allah sent me as a mercy for all the worlds; and my Almighty and Glorious Lord ordered me to abolish drums, musical instruments, idols, the cross and the affairs of the days of Ignorance. My Almighty and Glorious Lord has sworn, "By my honour, no servant among my servants shall drink a mouthful of wine but I will make him drink like it from the scorching water (of hell); and none abstains from it out of fear of me but I will give him drink from the Holy fountain." (Ahmad) 

9) Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings be upon him) said, "There are three for whom Allah has forbidden paradise, a habitual drunkard, one disobedient to parents, and a careless husband who establishes impurity in his family." (Ahmad and Nasai) 

10) Abu Musa Al-Asharee (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings be upon him) said, "There are three who will not enter paradise, a habitual drunkard, one who cuts of blood ties and one who believes in sorcery. (Ahmad) 

11) Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings be upon him) said’ "If a habitual drunkard dies, he will meet Allah like the one who worships idols." (Ahmad, Ibn majah from Abu Hurrairah) 

12) Abu Musa (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that he used to say, "I do not differentiate whether I drink wine or worship these idols besides Allah.    (Nasai ) 

From the above Ahaadith, we can clearly see the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and the Islamic view regarding intoxicants. In another Hadith the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) has described intoxicants as: - 

1. The key to all evils. 

2. The head of all errors and lapses. 

3. The most terrible of major sins. 

4. The mother of all atrocities. 

5. The mother of all evils. 

Why are drugs, intoxicants so abhorrent, awful, foul and vile in Islam? Let us look at what the scholars have said regarding the effects of drugs from a worldly and religious point: 

Ibn Hajar Al-Makki rahmatullahi alaihe narrates from some scholars that they are 120 worldly and religious detriments in consuming hashish (Cannabis). 

Not 10, not 20, but 120 harmful things occur by the consumption of drugs. 

The great Ibn-e-Seena says that large amounts of it dries up semen (The fluid that carries sperm thus rendering him incapable of passion in sexual intercourse). 

Ibn-ul-Bitaar says: A group of people used it (drugs) and they became mentally deranged (insane). 

Imaam Zarakhshee narrates in his book upon the prohibition of Hashish (Cocaine) from Zakariyah Razee, a famous doctor, that consuming hashish causes headaches, desiccates semen, brings about confusion, Neurosis, dries up all body fluids which could cause sudden death. Also it defects the mind, induces hectic fever, tuberculosis and oedema (dropsy). 

Ibn-e-Taymiyyah (a renowned scholar) says: All the faults, blemishes, bad things in khamr (wine) are present in hashish and more. Because the majority of faults in khamr effect religion, but hashish effects to a great extent both religion and body. 

Thereafter Sheikh Taymiyyah describes its faults: - 

    1) From a religious point of view it is as intoxicating as wine, it destroys the mind, causes forgetfulness, causes to reveal secrets, destroys shame, incubates dissimation, quells self respects, obliterates intelligence, prevents salaah and instigates towards Haraam, forbidden things.
2) From a physical aspect it deteriorates the mind, cuts off the means for offspring, brings about leprosy, sickness, feverish shivers, bad breath, loss of eyebrows and teeth, warming of blood, tuberculosis, damages intestines, destroys body organs, punctures the liver, burns the stomach and weakens eyesight amongst other things.The point all botanists have unanimously agreed upon is that hashish (cannabis) is an intoxicant, one of these botanists is Ibn-e-Baitaar. 

Ibn-e-Baitaar states that it is intoxicant. 

All the scholars including Abu Ishaaq Sheeraazee rahmatullahi alaihe and Allahma Nawawee have stressed that it is intoxicating. Allahma Zarakhshee further writes that we have not seen anyone differ in opinion regarding this. 

Ibn-e-Taymiyyah says that the fact is that it is an intoxicant like Wine. And Allahma Keerafe says that according to my research hashish is the cause of corruption and evil. 

Shariah and rational thinking both point towards the prohibition of drugs. 

As Imaam Zarakshee has mentioned in his book: - 

All verses (of the Qur’aan) and Ahaadith which testify that intoxicants are haraam also include hashish (i.e. drugs) 

The verses and Ahaadith regarding this have already been stated. 

Another verse, which proves drugs to be prohibited, is: They as you concerning khamr (intoxicant) and gambling. Say " In them there is great sin and some gain for mankind, but sin is greater then the gain. 

This verse, apart from informing us of how grave a sin it is to consume intoxicants, is also imparting a principle: Everything in which the evil and harm outweighs the gain is not allowed. Therefore, if we consider drugs, they deflect the sensory perceptions as well as producing hallucinations and illusions. They cause body lassitude, neurosis, decline in health, moral insensitivity etc. etc. the list is endless. Furthermore, there are no benefits whatsoever of taking drugs for recreational purposes. The perception (from Shaitan) that Class B drugs such as cannabis (dope, draw) is all right is utterly wrong. This verse clearly shows that although it seems like they may contain a few benefits, overall its evil is far greater. 

It is narrated that in Sahih Muslim: Every intoxicant is khamr (wine) and all Khamr is haraam. 

Imam Ibn-e-Taymiyyah states: It should be enough harm for a person just to know that it prevents you from the remembrance of Allah and salaah. 

In short, everything, which obstructs a person from Zikr-ullah and salaah, is haraam like wine. 

Allah Ta’ala states in the Holy Qur’aan: 

 And Allah has forbidden on to you the ‘khabaith’ i.e. repulsive, wicked and evil things.

What could be more evil then the thing which impairs the faculties of thought and perception in the mind? 

Dailamah Al-Humairee states: I asked the Holy Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him), ‘O Messenger of Allah ( (Peace and blessings be upon him) ), Verily we are in a cold land, and we have to work hard therein, and we prepare wine from this wheat which gives as strength in our works and in the chill of our cities.’ He asked, ‘Does it intoxicate?’ ‘yes’ he replied. He said, ‘Give it up.’ I said, ‘Verily the people can not give it up.’ He said, ‘If they do not give it up, fight with them.’ (Abu Dawood) 

This Hadith explains to us the principle cause of what is haraam. Chiefly, if it intoxicates it is haraam. The very same reason and cause is to be found in drugs. 

Some might say that all drugs do not intoxicate, that drugs like heroin and hashish are only depressants which slackens and weakens the mind. The answer to this is in the following Hadith: 

It has been narrated by Umme-Salmah, she states: The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) prohibited every intoxicant and muftir (every substance which slackens the mine). 

Imam Zarakshee notes in his kitab: The scholars have stated that muftir is everything that causes slackness. 

He then states: The Hadith (which has been mentioned above) particularly proves the prohibition of hashish because if it is not regarded as an intoxicant if definitely comes under the definition of ‘muftir’ (substance which causes drowsiness and the weakening of the mind etc.). 

Moving on, the unanimity of the ummah on the prohibition of narcotics is also narrated from many scholars. Imaam Zarakshee states: 

The consensus of the Ummah is narrated from several scholars in the prohibition of hashish; scholars include Qiraafi and ibn-e-Taymiyyah. 

And if that was not enough, Ibn-e-Taymiyyah has further said: Whosoever regards it lawful has become kafir (Irreligious; ‘God forbid’). 

The scholars of all four madhab’s unanimously agree that consuming anything intoxicating is haraam, certain plants have also been included as Imam Rafee’ clearly says that, ‘The scholars have included intoxicating plants etc. within the prohibition.’ 

So far the prohibition of drugs has been proven by means of the Qur’aan, Sunnah and Ijmah (consensus of the ulama). Its can further be proved by ‘Qiyaas’ (deduction by analogy) i.e. logical reasoning. When a person is intoxicated (or ‘stoned’ in street language) he does not know what he is doing. He could easily kill someone or fornicate etc. In the same manner, to feed his habit, he will most probably have to steal. These are, without a shadow of a doubt, unlawful. And there is a general rule that whatever leads to something haraam (unlawful) is in itself haraam. Thus drugs have been proven as haraam by all four sources of jurisprudence (Qur’aan, Sunnah, Ijmah and Qiyaas). 

What is the legal punishment for consuming drugs? 

Imam Mawardee has stressed that by consuming plants, which cause over-excitement (intoxication) ‘hadd’ (legal punishment i.e. 80 lashes) will become necessary. 

Imam Qiraafi states that all the ulama of this period have agreed that its consumption is haraam. However, there is a difference of opinion as to what (punishment) becomes incumbent by drugs; either hadd because it intoxicates or tazir (reprimand) because it corrupts the mind. 

In addition, in his book Az-Zakheera he states hadd or tazir will be imposed. 

According to three prominent Imaams (Imam Shafee’, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad) consuming anything intoxicating however small the amount will bring the legal punishment of 80 lashes to the person. 

However, in the Hanafi madhab in Fatawa ‘Al-Khulasa lil-Hanafiyyah’ it is stated: 

If an intoxicating amount has been taken then according to Imam Muhammad hadd will be necessary and according to Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam Abu Yusuf he will be reprimanded severely, but the hadd will not be imposed. 

Tazir (reprimand) is such a punishment that holds no specific amount and it is for the Judge to decide. 

Bear in mind that according to some scholars, in certain cases, tazir could prove to be more severe than the hadd itself e.g. When the person persistently commits the crime. 

C. Islam and Smoking

Since the first discovery of tobacco was made in America in the fifteenth century, the aepidemic of smoking has spread continuously around the world. As early as the Seventeenth Century, the European countries realised the dangers of smoking and hastened to ordain Laws in England and various other countries to prohibiting smoking. The Western countries, even today, continue their attempts in combating smoking. They employ means of media, pass legislation and apply multiple methods to discourage people from smoking. 

Smoking has, to an extent, become the rule and abstaining from it the exception. Often, people look down with astonishment and contempt at a person who when a cigarette is offered to him, declines explaining that he does not smoke. Offering cigarettes to guests has become a matter of hospitality! 

Furthermore, those who pretend to represent the Deen are among the worst addicts. When they are reproached or reprimanded of their vice, they respond by providing weak excuses to justify it. They slyly remark that there is no clear text prohibiting smoking. Whereby they conclude that smoking is not prohibited, but is only makruh (disliked). In this manner they provide a poor excuse for the ignorant and establish a bad example for others. 

Thus, it has become necessary to write an article which provides evidence regarding the ruling of smoking in Islam. We hope that this will benefit our Muslim brothers and sisters; and we ask Allah Ta’ala to accept it from us as a sincere deed for His pleasure. 

Smoking refers to the act of lighting tobacco or materials of similar effect, which is then sucked on with the lips to extract smoke. This smoke is inhaled into the chest and then exhaled from the nose and mouth. "Smoking", is now used to refer to the action of producing this smoke in English, Arabic, and other languages. 

There are many reasons, any one of which are sufficient, to rule smoking as prohibited. Most importantly, it is harmful to the Deen, health, environment, family, brotherhood and social relations, property, etc. 

Smoking damages a person’s act of worship, and reduces their rewards. For instance, it ruins the salaah, which is a pillar of Deen. The Prophet May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him said: ‘Whoever eats garlic or onion, let him avoid us and our masjid, and stay in his home. The angels are surely hurt by things that hurt the human beings.’ (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) 

Those people, with clean and pure nature, have no doubt that the smell emanating from the mouth of a smoker is worse and more foul than that from the mouth of one who ate garlic or onion. Therefore, a smoker has two options, either to harm the praying people and the angels with his foul smell, or abstain from the prayer with jama’ah. 

Smoking also ruins fasting. Fasting becomes very hard on the smoker. As soon as the day is over, he hastens to break his fast on an evil cigarette instead of sweet dates or pure water. Even if he fasts throughout the month of Ramadhaan he will be reluctant to fast on other days. Thus he loses the great reward of those who fast even one day in Allah’s path. 

The harm that smoking does to the human body is undeniable. The medical evidence for this is well established and overwhelming. Because of this, the law in the United Kingdom and many other countries requires including a government health warning on the packet and on any advertisement. 

Smoking contains poisonous materials, such as nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, arsenic, benzopyrene, etc., which the smoker inhales in small proportions. Their harm accumulates in time, resulting in a gradual damage of the human organs and tissues. 

The hazards of smoking to health are hard to count. Cancer, tuberculosis, heart attacks, asthma, coughing, premature birth, infertility, infections in the digestive system, high blood pressure, nervousness, mouth and teeth diseases, etc., are among the many health hazards that have been strongly linked to smoking. 

These diseases may not all appear at once, but a smoker runs the risk of suffering from some of them, and his suffering increases as he grows older. Furthermore, statistics have established that smokers, on the average, reduce their age by ten years. 

This in itself is sufficient to prohibit smoking. Islam prohibits any action that causes harm to oneself or to other people. Allah Ta’ala says : 

‘Do not kill yourselves, Allah is indeed merciful to you.’  

(An-Nisa’ 4-29)
‘Do not cast yourselves, with your own hands, into destruction.’ 
  
(Al-Baqarah 2:195)
And the Messenger May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him says: ‘No harm may be inflicted on oneself or others.’ 
 
(Ahmad and Ibn Maajah from Ibn Abbaas and Ubaadah)

‘The feet of a human being will not depart, on the day of Judgement, from his standing before his Lord, until he is questioned about five things: his lifetime - how did he pass it, his youth - how did he used it, his wealth - where did he earn it and how did he spend it, and how did he follow what he knew.’ 
(At-Tirmithi and others from Ibn Mas‘ud and Abu Barzah )

‘Whoever consumes poison, killing himself with it, then he will he consuming his poison in the hellfire, and he will abide in it permanently and eternally.’ 
(Al-Bukhari and Muslim from Jaabir)

Smoking is also harmful to the human mind and its power to reason. An obvious demonstration of this is that one who is addicted to it passes through periods of severe craving, making it hard for him to think, concentrate, solve a problem, or do any important matter, until he smokes. 

His digestive system is also affected, causing him frequent nervousness and trembling of the hands. He passes through periods of excitability and he becomes an insomniac. 

Therefore, instead of being the slave of Allah, a smoker becomes a slave to his cigarette. The faculty of reason, clear and unobstructed, is one of Allah’s great bounties on people. Allah Ta’ala has praised it in numerous places of the Qura’an; and He called on people to use it to see the truth and obey Him in a better way. Allah wants of the believer to be strong and capable of controlling the reigns of his desires. He has stated: 

‘Allah wants to let you into His mercy, whereas those who follow the desires want you to drift far away (from the right path).’ 
(An-Nisa 4:27)

A smoker also emits his poison in the faces of his companions, wife, children, and the environment. It is a well-established fact that passive smoking is almost as dangerous as first-hand. Thus, whether they like it or not, a smoker’s associates are forced to inhale the smoke and be inflicted with this poison as well. 

In addition to the poison normally carried in the smoke, if a smoker has a contagious disease, such as tuberculosis or influenza, his exhaled smoke and coughing will also carry the disease to those around him. 

Furthermore, a smoker regularly irritates people by the foul smell and poisonous nature of his smoking. If they suffer from asthma or allergies, they are forced to move away from his vicinity. The Prophetsallallahu alaihe wasallam said: Anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day should not hurt his neighbour. 

(Al-Bukhari)
Thus, smoking constitutes a definite harm to other people; this is prohibited, as was indicated in the Hadith cited earlier. 

Also, a smoker is certainly a bad companion to sit with, as is depicted in the following Hadith: 

Verily, the example of a good companion and a bad one is like that of a perfume merchant and a blacksmith: As for the perfume merchant, he would either grant you (some perfume), or you would buy (some perfume) from him, or (in the least) you would get a good smell from him. And as for the blower of the bellows (ironsmith), you would either get a foul odour from him, or he would burn your clothes. 

(Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

A smoker wastes his wealth on that which harms and has no benefit; he will be asked about his wealth and how he spent it, as has been cited in the Hadith earlier. His wealth belongs to Allah, so how would he dare to waste it in disobedience to Him Allah Ta’ala states(what means): 

‘And do not entrust to the imprudent ones the possessions that Allah has placed in your charge.’ 

(An-Nisa 4:5)
‘And do not waste (your resources) extravagantly. Indeed the squanderers are the brethren of the devils.’   (Al-lsra’ 17:26-27)

And the Prophet sallallahu alaihe wasallam said: Allah hates for you three things: gossiping, begging, and wasting money. 
(Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
Furthermore, there are numerous cases of carpets, furniture, and even complete houses and establishments burning down due to this disastrous vice. 

Smoking is a form of moral decadence. It is spread mostly among the low-class, immoral people. It reflects blind imitation of the Kuffar and non-pious Muslims. It is mostly consumed in bars, discos, casinos, and other places of sin. A smoker may beg or steal if he does not have the money to buy cigarettes. He is ill mannered with his friends and family, especially when he misses taking his necessary "dose" at the usual time. 

Smoking involves the consumption of an evil substance (khabeeth). It has a foul smell, foul taste and is harmful to the body. This is sufficient to prohibit it, because Allah Ta’ala states (what means): 

‘(The Prophet May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him) who will enjoin upon them the doing of what is right, forbid them the doing of what is wrong, make lawful to them the good things of life, prohibit for them the evil things, and lift from them their burdens and the shackles that were (previously) upon them.’ 

(Al-A’raf 7:157)
A smoker inhales smoke that does not give him any nourishment. This is similar to the action of the people of the Hell fire who eat harmful thorny plants: 

‘No food will be there for them but a poisonous thorny plant, which will neither nourish them nor still their hunger.’ 

(Al-Ghaashiyah 88:6-7)
A smoker, whether he likes it or not, makes an example of himself for his children and others to follow. He leads them to commit this evil. Actions sometimes have a stronger effect than words. Thus, even if he advises them or forbids them from smoking, his partaking of it provides them with a strong excuse to do it. 

The problem is worse when the smoker is of known piety or knowledge. In such case, his harm becomes more emphasised, because more people take him as guide and example and are thus lead astray by him. This multiplies his sins and increases his burden. 

The majority of good people avoid smoking and stay away from smokers. Therefore, a smoker would be forced to stay away from them - at least while he smokes. He puts himself in selective exile, creating a spiritual distance and hostility between him and the good people, and a closeness to the evil people. The effects of this become more apparent and acute with time. Note that this applies equally to any sin that a person commits either large or small. 

A smoker despises himself, because he feels that a little cigarette is controlling him. Realising his weakness due to his desire, this creates in him a feeling of defeat in the face of hardships. 

Since smoking became known to Muslims, all of the great scholars who have the capability of Ijtihad (deriving verdicts in new situations) agree to its prohibition. Thus, there is no value for baseless opinions, conflicting with this, provided by self-proclaimed lesser scholars. 

In discussing the subject of the prohibition of smoking, there are some important warnings that need to be mentioned: 

1. As indicated before, the prohibition of smoking is not restricted to cigarettes, but applies as well to other objects that have similar effects such as cigars, pipes, water-pipes, chewing tobacco or sniffing tobacco, etc. 

2. The reasons mentioned above for prohibiting smoking apply as well, and more strongly, to various types of drugs such as hashish marijuana and ecstasy. These materials have additional problems such as causing drunkenness, death, madness, etc. 

3. The prohibition of smoking is not restricted to consuming it, but applies as well to offering it to people, sitting with those who are smoking, or selling it. All of this involves helping people commit sins, which is prohibited, as Allah Ta’ala states (what means): 

‘Help one another in righteousness and piety, and do not help one another in sinning and transgression. And fear and revere Allah; verily, Allah is severe in punishment. 

(Al-Maidah 5:2)
Also, Allah’s Messenger said: Indeed when Allah prohibits something, he prohibits eating its price. 
(Ahmad and Abu Dawud: Ibn Abbas; authenticated by al-Albaani)
Only few of those addicted to smoking are able to stop it. The reasons for this are many, among which are the following: 

(a). The addictive nature of the poisonous substances contained in it. 

(b). The smokers are not totally convinced of its prohibition. 

(c). They do not have a strong determination to refrain from it. 

The following are some suggestions to help a person stop smoking: 

1. Rely on Allah sincerely, with full determination not to return to smoking, in compliance with Allah’s command: 

‘When you decide on a certain course of action, place your trust in Allah.’ 

(Al-lmran 3:159)
2. Stop immediately instead of claiming it is best to do it gradually. The gradual approach is the way of one who does not trust his determination and the will power that Allah has granted him. Let the example be taken from the Sahabah who, as soon as Allah’s command reached them regarding alcohol: 

‘Will you not then desist?’ (Al-Maa’idah 5:91) they immediately poured out all the alcohol that they had and said, "We desist our Lord, we desist!" They did this despite the fact that alcohol has a greater addictive power over those who drink it. 

3. Avoid the bad company of smokers and smoking environments that are full with the smell of smoke. 

4. Change the food diet by abstaining from foods and drinks that would entice the craving to smoke such as spices, meat, tea, and coffee; and eat a lot of vegetables and fruits. 

5. Use medically tested and established procedures to help stop smoking, as directed by physicians, such as nicotine patches, nicotine gum, etc. 

6. Expel the secret whispers of Satan who continuously dictates to the human being that he is weak and incapable of refraining from sinning, as Allah Ta’ala states (what means): 

‘It is but Satan who instils (into you) fear of his allies; so do not fear them, but fear Me if you are (truly) believers.’ 

‘Fight then against the allies of Satan; indeed, Satan’s guile is weak.’ 

 DIslam and Alcohol

THE QURAN AND ALCOHOL

It is stated in the Qur’ân: “They ask you regarding wine and gambling. Say, in both of them is major sin, and there is some benefit for men, but the sin of them is far greater than benefit ”  
 (Surah Baqarah) 

THE PROPHET AND ALCOHOL

During the early days of Islam, consumption of liquor, just like other ills and evils of society, was also prevelent. 

When Rasulullah SALLALAHUALAYHIWASSALAM migrated from Makkah to Madinah he found that the Madinites were also indulging in drinking. The masses were so attracted by the superficial and deceptive benefits offered by drinking that their minds became oblivious of the harmful effects and the evils lurking within these addictions. 

Our Prophet SALLALAHUALAYHIWASSALAM was the finest model who set the best example of his sublime characteristic, so much that whatever was yet to be declared Haram, His habit and nature made him detest it from the very outset. Besides Rasulullah SALLALAHUALAYHIWASSALAM other Sahâbâhs RADHIALLAHUANHO also refrained from consuming alcoholic beverages even when these were Halaal. 

On Reaching Madinah some of Sahâbâh RADHIALLAHUANHO realised the evil in liquor. So, Hazrat Umar Farooq .RADHIALLAHUANHO, Maaz Ibn Jabal .RADHIALLAHUANHOand some of the other Sahâbâh RADHIALLAHUANHO approached Rasulullah SALLALAHUALAYHIWASSALAM and questioned him regarding alcohol and gambling, which they thought were ruining not only man’s intelligent but also his wealth. 

In response to this query, the above verse was revealed and it constituted the first of a series of revelations leading to the final and conclusive verse, which prohibited and declared Haram both gambling and liquor. 

Although the above verse dose not prohibit alcohol outright, but it never the less presents a ‘Mashwarah’ (advice) for abstaining from the usage of alcohol. This is why some of the Sahâbâh RADHIALLAHUANHO, after hearing this verse immediately stopped consuming alcohol and accepted this mashwarah. 

STORIES REGARDING ALCOHOL

On the other hand some of the other Sahâbâhs RADHIALLAHUANHO resumed that this verse did not declare alcohol Haram, so they declared that it overtakes full precaution and law, that a mediate consumption of alcohol would not be harmful. 

However, shortly an incident occurred which brought about a sudden change in the situation. One day, Hazrat Abdur-Rahman Ibn Auf RADHIALLAHUANHO had invited some of his companions, and as was the custom of the Arabs they had consumed alcohol after their needs. 

Thereafter, while still in a state of intoxication, the Maghrib Salâh was performed. The Imâm who was also drunk made an error in his recitation of Surah Kafiroon. Upon this, the second step was taken to prevent the consumption of alcohol, by the revelation of the following verse: “O Believers’ do not approach Salâh while intoxicated.”  
(Surah Nisaa) 

This verse now declared alcohol Haraam in clear-cut terms but the consumption was for the duration of Salâh times, and at other periods it was still permissible. With this second warning many more of the Sahâbâhs RADHIALLAHUANHO refrained completely from drinking Alcohol, reasoning that what good can there be in something that deprives one from Salâh. 

There were others however, who drank liquor during the intervening periods of salâh until the following incident took place: Uthmaan Ibn Maalik RADHIALLAHUANHO invited a few Sahâbâhs RADHIALLAHUANHO for a meal. After the meal, as was customary liquor was served. Thereafter, they became involved in another Arab custom, reciting poetry praising oneself, family and clan and simultaneously teasing and belittling others who didn’t belong to that group. 

During this gathering, Hazrat Saad Ibn Abi Waqqas RADHIALLAHUANHO recited a few lines of poetry in which he criticized and belittled the Ansars of Madinah. Hearing this, an Ansari youth became enraged and threw a bone at him, which inflicted a severe wound on the head of Saad Ibn Waqqas RADHIALLAHUANHO.  
He then complained against the youngster to Rasulullah SALLALAHUALAYHIWASSALAM, after which he made dua’a to Allah:  
O Allah! Grant us a clear cut for regarding alcohol.” 

In response to this the 3rd and 4th verses concerning the complete prohibition of alcohol, were revealed as part of Surah Ma’idah: 

"O you who believe! Intoxicants, gambling, idolatry and arrows (for seeking help on decision) one an abomination of order that you may be successful. 
Shaytan seeks only to cast amongst you enmity and hatred by means of strong drink and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from his worship, will you then not refrain? 
 
   (Surah Ma’idah 90)
Allah in his wisdom, firstly disclosed the evils in alcohol, then prohibited it at Salâh times and finally declared it absolutely HARAAM.

ALCOHOL THE MOTHER OF ALL SINS

Just as there lies great wisdom in the gradual revelation of laws prohibiting alcohol, there is also wisdom in the strait enforcement of severe punishment for drinking alcohol. Therefore, the Prophet SALLALAHUALAYHIWASSALAM referred to alcohol as the mother of sins because after consuming it, man can indulge in other major sins. 

Once a pious man met a woman, who invited him towards committing a sin (adultery). The man flatly refused. After her constant insisting, she still failed. Thereafter, she gave him a choice of options, 1. Committing adultery with her or 2. To murder her newly born child, whom had she begot from her previous husband. Or 3. To consume some alcohol which she possessed. If he were not willing to comply then she would scream and falsely inform the inhabitants of that place that he had raped her. The man upon pondering decided to consume the alcohol, taking it to be least harmful of the three sins. Upon the consumption of alcohol, he became intoxicated, and then consequently, he killed the child and also committed adultery with the woman. 

In one Hadith, Rasulullah SALLALAHUALAYHIWASSALAM has said that Imâm and alcohol cannot gather (are not compatible) with a person  
(Nasai) 

THE BENEFITS AND HARMS OF ALCOHOL

People generally are quite well acquainted with what benefits are attributed to alcohol, for instance enjoyment of temporary happiness, strength increase of a short time, colour becomes clearer, initially (as to some medical claim). 

Compared to the few limited benefits of alcohol its risks and harms are so varied that, perhaps so many disadvantages may not be present in any other thing. 

1. Through alcohol, the stomach gradually loses its ability to function properly.  
2. Causes loss of appetite.  
3. It spoils ones facial features (Appearance)  
4. Makes one age quicker.  
5. Weakens and reduces the ability to think and speak properly.  
6. Causes heart failure  
7. The progeny of alcohol are weaker.  
8. Creates fights and enmity between people  
9. Leads towards grave sins, often adultery and murder are the direct results of drinking.  
10. Thousands of pounds are wasted in this vice 

PREVENTING ALCOHOL

Dr M Robertson states, “If half the pubs and bottle stores were closed, I guarantee that half the hospitals and jails will remain closed.” 

Those who have stopped repented sincerely have not failed to arrive to the conclusion that alcohol is the mother of all evils, a deadly poison from which one must abstain. 

May Almighty Allah save the Ummah, especially the youth from this sin and everything, which calls upon His wrath. Ameen. 


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اللهم صل على محمد وعلى آل محمد
كما صليت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد
اللهم بارك على محمد وعلى آل محمد
كما باركت على إبراهيم وعلى آل إبراهيم إنك حميد مجيد

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وآخر دعواهم أنِ الحمد لله ربِّ العالمين  

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