Quran's number 19
(Unveiling the Secret of an Allegory)
I want to join the discussions around the Quran’s number 19 with my own interpretation. Surely, this is, eventually, an “interpretation”. My purpose is to show those, suggesting an argument about 19 to which no one else believes, that other dimensions of the matter which they could not conceive may exist. My argument may, just like theirs, be erroneous, but, I accept this in advance and believe that common sense of Moslims will find the truth (even though this may not be my argument) with the help of time. One of the reasons why I put forward this argument is that it can be inferred from the statements in the Quran that the fact about 19 will be understood in this world. However, some people put forward such arguments in this matter that the Moslim people became afraid of even approaching this matter. From this perspective, I think that new approaches should be developed with courage but without losing equanimity.
My argument related to 19 is briefly as follows: “By establishing a direct relationship between the number 19 and the hell and defining 19 as a mischief and stating that the doubt of believers and people of the book will disappear upon reveal of the fact related to the number 19, the Quran miraculously notifies us that atheism will begin to rise and the mischief of “Theory of Evolution” will emerge in the 19th century. (Only Allah (c.c.) (God) knows the most accurate).
In this case, if we add my argument related to the number 19, currently three interpretations exists:
- Conventional opinion in the interpretations related to “19”
- The Code 19 exists in the Koran.
- There is a relationship between 19 and the hell, i.e. between atheism and 19th century.
Related Verses of Chapter “Muddesir”
The meaning of number 19 is not made clear in Quran. Quran mentions about number 19 in surah “Muddesir”, verses from 27 to 31. Obviously the meaning of these verses is a secret of Quran. From this point of view, all three claims stay in an equal distance to the real meaning of number 19. We have to look at the Quran to evaluate the claims. Although Quran does not make clear the meaning of 19, it gives some hints about it. So, here are 2 translations of those verses, Muddesir/27-31 by Yusuf Ali and M. H. Shakir :
Muddesir/27-31 (A. Yusuf Ali)And what will explain to thee what Hell-Fire is?Naught doth it permit to endure, and naught doth it leave alone!-Darkening and changing the color of man!Over it are Nineteen.“And We have set none but angels as Guardians of the Fire; and We have fixed their number only as a trial for Unbelievers,- in order that the People of the Book may arrive at certainty, and the Believers may increase in Faith,- and that no doubts may be left for the People of the Book and the Believers, and that those in whose hearts is a disease and the Unbelievers may say, "What doth Allah intend by this ?" Thus doth Allah leave to stray whom He pleaseth, and guide whom He pleaseth: and none can know the forces of thy Lord, except He and this is no other than a reminder to mankind.”
Muddesir/27-31 (M.H. Shakir)And what will make you realize what hell is?It leaves naught nor does it spare aught.It scorches the mortal.Over it are nineteen.“And We have not made the wardens of the fire others than angels, and We have not made their number but as a trial for those who disbelieve, that those who have been given the book may be certain and those who believe may increase in faith, and those who have been given the book and the believers may not doubt, and that those in whose hearts is a disease and the unbelievers may say: What does Allah mean by this parable? Thus does Allah make err whom He pleases, and He guides whom He pleases, and none knows the hosts of your Lord but He Himself; and this is naught but a reminder to the mortals.”
In these verses, unique function of 19 is defined and results which are stated to follow are given.
Conventional Opinion about 19
I will try to clarify the traditional interpretation of Quran’s number 19 by using well-known Quran tafsirs. (Tafsir means Quranic exegesis). So here are 2 traditional interpretations of Quran’s number 19:
“And We have appointed only angels as wardens of the Fire, in other words, and so they cannot be withstood as these [disbelievers are wont to] imagine; and We have made their number, so, only as a stumbling-block, a cause for error, for those who disbelieve, when they then say, 'Why are there nineteen of them?', so that those who were given the Scripture, namely, the Jews, may be certain, of the sincerity of the Prophet (s) in [saying that] they are nineteen, for this concords with what is in their Scripture; and that those who believe, from among the People of the Scripture, may increase in faith, in affirmation of the truth, given that what the Prophet (s) has said concords with what is in their Scripture, and that those given the Scripture and the believers, [those] other than these [Jews], may not be in doubt, concerning the number of [these] angels, and that those in whose hearts there is a sickness, an uncertainty, [those] in Medina, and the disbelievers, in Mecca, may say, 'What did God mean by this, number [as a], similitude?' (mathalan: they referred to it thus [as a mathal] on account of it being a curious matter; in terms of syntax, it [mathalan] is a circumstantial qualifier). Thus, that is, just as the one who rejects this number is led astray and the one who affirms the truth of it is guided, God leads astray whom He will and guides whom He will. And none knows the hosts of your Lord, namely, the angels, [none knows them] in terms of their strength and their assistants, except Him. And it, that is, Saqar, is nothing but a reminder for humans.” – Tafsir Al-Jalalayn (source: www.altafsir.com)
“(We have appointed) We set on the dwellers of the Fire (only angels) the keepers of the Fire (to be wardens of the Fire, and their number have We made) and We have not mentioned the fewness of the keepers of the Fire save (to be a stumbling block) except in order to be a calamity (for those who disbelieve) the disbelievers of Mecca: Abu'l-Ashadd Ibn Usayd Ibn Kildah who said: “I will take care of seventeen angels, nine on my back and eight on my chest; therefore you should take care of the other two”; (that those to whom the scripture) the Torah, i.e. 'Abdullah Ibn Salam and his followers, for it is written in the Torah that the number of the keepers of the Fire is nineteen (hath been given may have certainty, and that believers may increase in faith) when they know that what is in their Scripture is similar to that which is in the Torah; (and that those to whom the Scripture hath been given) 'Abdullah Ibn Salam and his followers, when they see that there is no difference between what is in the Qur'an and that which is in the Torah (and believers) also for the same reason (may not doubt; and that those in whose hears there is disease) doubt and hypocrisy, (and disbelievers) the Jews and Christians; and it is said: the disbelievers of Mecca, (may say: What meaneth Allah by this similitude) when he mentioned the small number of angels who are in charge of the Fire? (Thus Allah sendeth astray) through this similitude (whom He will) whoever deserves it, (and whom He will) and whoever deserves (He guideth) by means of this similitude. (None knoweth the hosts of your Lord) among the angels (save Him. This is) i.e. Saqar, the fourth gate of the Fire (naught else than a Reminder unto mortals) an admonition to people in order to warn them.” - Tafsir Ibn Abbas (source: www.altafsir.com)
Opinion about “19” given in these interpretations can be summarized as follows: “19” is the number of angels of the hell and it is turned to a matter of “test” for unbelievers. This matter of “test” is explained with the fact that unbelievers continuously struggle with this figure and words of disbelievers of Mecca regarding 19 angels are conveyed. The main theme is their continuous struggle with “19”. In my opinion, the case God presented as example in the above verses is also this. However, conventional opinion explains the results given in the verse with a different characteristic of 19. According to interpretations, the figure of 19 which is notified as the number of angels of the hell is given in the same manner as 19 in the book (Torah) of the people of the book (Jews). Based upon this, interpreters argued that the results given in the verse will be derived with this accordance. According to them, by realising that the same number of angels of the hell is given also in the Quran, people of the book will understand that the Quran is also inspired by the God, thus, reach the definite information and recognise the dignity of the Prophet. The problem here is that there is no reference in the verse regarding this function of accordance of 19. The conventional interpretation has more significant problems. We will discuss them below.
Assuming that the readers already know what the Code 19 is, I will not dive into the details of this argument. Those who want detailed information can use the internet. However, I will try to explain briefly what the Code 19 has done indeed.
According to the Code 19 argument, the figure “19” is both a “trial” for unbelievers and (at the same time) a mathematical miracle to ensure faith in god of believers and people of the book. Indeed, what Code 19 does is the same with that done by the conventional interpretation. Supporters of Code 19 argument distinguish the figure “19” and its nature of “being a mischief for unbelievers” and associate a meaning bearing a new function they impute to the figure “19” with the results explained to be derived in the verse. The problem here is that there is no reference in the verse as 19 is a code and even worse, there is also no rational way and reason of distinguishing 19 and its nature of being a mischief for unbelievers. Of course if you do not aim at imputing to the figure 19 a meaning with a new function.
The Word “Fitneten”
In the verse, original Arabic translation of the word “test” given in the English translations is the word “fitneten”. It can be seen upon a search to be made within the Quran about this word of “fitne” denoted in the verse that the word “fitne” is used in the Quran with the following meanings: trial; persecution; mischief; confusion; temptation; hardship; punishment; or forcibly keeping away a man from pursuing the right path, or misleading a man into false pursuits or into deviation from truth. The word is often used in the Qur'an in conjunction with the word Fasad which means corruption and disruption and signifies social disorder and tyranny.
The word “Meselen” and Exemplification
One of the most interesting points in the verse Muddesir/31 is the use of the word “meselen” toward the end of the verse. This word means “example” and/or “parable”. Accordingly, Y. Nuri Öztürk translated that part of the verse as “let them say what God desires to exemplify with that”.
The use of this word denotes that an exemplification is made in the verse. Thus, in the following verse of the Koran it is told that unbelievers will say/said “What God intended to say with this example” regarding the examples given by God:
Surely Allah is not ashamed to set forth any parable-- (that of) a gnat or any thing above that; then as for those who believe, they know that it is the truth from their Lord, and as for those who disbelieve, they say: What is it that Allah means by this parable: He causes many to err by it and many He leads aright by it! but He does not cause to err by it (any) except the transgressors,
The case of mischief given as example
As I mentioned while discussing about the conventional interpretation above, the case used by the lofty God in Muddesir/31 as an example depicts the stand of disbelievers of Mecca regarding the number of angels. However, as highlighted toward the ending sections of Muddesir/31, with this case, God merely desired to exemplify another fact. You will read this below in more detail. Here, a question may come to mind: “Is such a fiddling case used as an example?” The best answer to this question is the verse Bakara/26 which is given above. In this verse, the God particularly emphasized that [God] does not refrain from giving as example the things which seem fiddling. Don’t you think that the verse Bakara/26 seems inspired to particularly to clarify the verse Muddesir/31?
Analysis of the Verses
First of all, a clear and irrefutable association is established in the verse between “19” and the hell. This is contrary to both conventional interpretation and the Code 19 argument, since both claims impute a favorable meaning to 19. The Code 19 argument presents this figure as a miraculous coding system, and conventional interpretation emphasizes the accordance between the Quran and the Torah. On the other hand, my argument emphasizes that 19 has an unfavorable meaning and from this perspective, the relationship of 19 and the hell is fully compliant with my argument.
When we closely review the verse, we realize that it is emphasized by underlining that the figure “19” has a single function. The verse also expresses “we rendered their numbers solely a means of mischief for unbelievers”. Here, the use of the word “solely” is interesting. It is stated that the figure “19” – whatever it stands for as a figure - shall solely have the feature of mischief for unbelievers. This word of “solely” causes us believe that the single function of the figure “19” is being a mischief and 19, as a figure itself, has no direct relationship with believers. From this perspective, only my argument survives. Because, both Code 19 argument and the conventional interpretation defend that 19 has a function other than being a mischief for unbelievers. However, this argument completely conflicts with the expression “we did not do anything else” in the verse.
Let us examine this part of the verse a bit more carefully: “We have not made their number but as a trial for those who disbelieve, that those who have been given the book may be certain and those who believe may increase in faith…” The affix “that” here is also very interesting! The affix “that” serves the function of connecting the previous sentence to the next one… The meaning in the previous sentence is “wholly” connected to the next one... Namely, a cause-effect relationship is established between whole event that “19, which is the number of angels, is a means of mischief for unbelievers” and the results following in the verse, not only with the figure 19! The verse describes the results to be derived thanks to “making the figure 19, which is the number of angels, a mischief”. In other words, the verse clearly associates the derivation of results with “making 19 a mischief” . Certainly, what is done in the verse is merely an exemplification. Therefore, the results described in the verse are to be derived by understanding the reality indicated with the example given and realising the relationship between the example and that is exemplified, not by the example itself. However, defenders of “Code 19” and conventional interpretation distinguish the wordings “19” and “making it a mischief” and associate the results stated to be derived with the meanings of the figure “19” which have a new function by no means stated in the verse. But, there is no rational way of making the inference they made from the expression in the verse. On the contrary, the verse clearly tied the results described to “making number 19 a mischief”.
The verse emphasizes that the fact exemplified by the manner of expression as “We have not made their number but…” should have a unique and single characteristic. “A 19 which is a mischief for unbelievers”… In addition, the verse completely ties the results to be derived to this unique and single characteristic. So, the fact exemplified by the verse should be a figure 19 which has no other characteristic than being a “mischief”. The thing which will influence people of the book and believers is that this fact is pointed out through the exemplification made in the verse. Code 19 argument and conventional interpretation are problematic from this perspective. Because, both of them associate the results to be derived with characteristics other than being a “mischief”.
In short, the thing which will enhance the faith of believers and people of the book is the understanding of what the exemplification made in the verse by “making 19, which is the number of angels, a mischief for unbelievers” actually points out. However, this fact should solely be “a 19 which is a mischief for unbelievers” as given in the verse and the results to be derived should also be ensured through common characteristics (being a mischief for unbelievers, being 19) and accordance of both the example given and the fact exemplified.
My argument of “19th century” is fully compliant with the verse from this point of view. Because, my claim does not ascribe to 19 a meaning which is new and has a function not included in the verse. The point my argument emphasized is that understanding of the fact that “19th century will be a century of mischief for unbelievers” through exemplification made in the verse will bring the results given in the verse. In other words, there is no new function my argument ascribed to 19 other than the mischief which is unique and single function assigned to 19 in the verse. Some people may criticize that all these inferences made based upon a word of “solely” and a conjunction of “that” in an interpretation of Quran. However, the same word is also used and the same meaning is imputed with a similar conjunction in all English interpretations.
Also, original Arabic wording of the Quran is “ve ma ce’alna ‘ıddetehum illa fitneten lilleziyne keferu …” This wording can be translated into English as Yusuf Ali or Shakir did. In other words, the same structure and meaning exist in the original Arabic version of the verse…
Analysis of the Results given in the Verse
According to the verse Muddesir/31, the fact related to 19 will bring the following results:
- Ensure certainty in (the faith of) people of the book,
- Enhance the faith of believers,
- Eliminate the doubt of people of the book and believers.
Let us examine all of these 3 arguments from the point of results given.
Conventional interpretation makes a childish impression from the point of producing the results given. It is nothing more than optimism to think that the fact that the number of angels of the hell given in the Quran is exactly the same with the number in the Torah would bring all these conclusions. I cannot imagine any Jewish or Christian who would believe that the Quran is from God based upon this match of numbers. On the contrary, this causes them believe that the Quran is only a blueprint. However, the main problem of the conventional interpretation is that it goes out of the single and unique function of 19 expressed in the verse by associating the results to be derived with exactly the same use of 19 in the Quran and the Torah. In other words, conventional interpretation adds to the figure 19 another function of compliance with the Torah in addition to being “a mischief for unbelievers”.
The argument of Code 19 seems to meet all the results. A mathematically structured book may attract attention of some people and create the results given in the verse. However, the problem is that such type of mathematical “miracles” (or statistical coincidences) may exist in many books. Thus, when I searched, I found people who claim that such type of numerical codes exist in the Christian Bible and even in the American Declaration of Independence. Therefore, it is again nothing but a kind of optimism to claim that such type of statistical coincidences are well beyond chance and to think that books including these alleged codes are of divine origin. However, the basic problem of the Code 19, as in the case for conventional interpretation, is that it associates the results described in the verse to a new meaning which includes a function apart from the unique function of 19 given in the verse.
19th century argument has also potential to produce all the results. Our argument that the issue that 19th century will be a mischief for unbelievers is stated in the Quran is a miracle from the perspective that the Quran foretells and so important that it will enhance the faith of believers and ensure certainty of faith of people of the book.
The greatest mischief of the 19th century is surely “The Theory of Evolution”. In this respect, words of the famous atheist Richard Dawkins are important: “Darwin made it possible to be an intelectually fullfilled atheist”. Charles Darwin published his theory which forms basis for atheism in 1859 (in the 19th century).
When we look back to the history of human being, it can be seen that the only fact which coincides with the words “19” and “mischief” is 19th century and “Theory of Evolution”.
Additionally, the use of the word “doubt” for both people of the book and believers strengthen our 19th century argument. Ask yourself: “What is the greatest and common source of “doubt” of people of the book and believers today?” This situation shows parallelism with an important characteristic borne by the 19th century argument and not exists in the other two claims. In this argument, the source of “doubt” of people of the book and believers is the same with the thing which is a mischief for unbelievers: “19th century”. I think this characteristic is of vital importance, since believers and people of the book are required not to fall in doubt through expression in the verse that “19 is nothing but a mischief for unbelievers”. This expression implies that such doubt of people of the book and believers is somewhat related with “19”. When considered from this point of view, only the argument of 19th century passes the test.
Another important issue is that “people of the book” and “believers” are separately mentioned in the verse... In other words, this miracle (whatever it is) must be –necessarily- approved by “people of the book”. However, it is certain that the community defined as “people of the book” is not the same with “believers of the Quran”. Namely, this miracle must be meaningful even for the “people of the book” although they do not “believe in the Quran”. It is obvious that those putting forward the claim of “code 19” do not meet this requirement. However, the claim of “19th century” will be –necessarily- meaningful for the “people of the book”.
The point that the name of the sura Muddesir is “the hidden thing” perfectly matches with the 19th century argument. Because, denial (atheism) has been a hidden phenomenon until 19th century, has never established an intellectual basis, however, this situation changed in the 19th century.
Another aspect against the claimants of the Code 19 argument is as follows: “Surely, something included in the Quran may be difficult to find, however, it should be easy to understand when it is expressed”. In the end, the Koran addresses to all human being. From this perspective, claimants of the Code 19 argument are in trouble, since their claim can even not be “tested” by many people. Even the method used by them in counting words and letters is controversial. For example, very robust critics are raised even against the claims that the number of figures in the recite “Bismillah” is 19. However, the argument of 19th century is a claim easy to understand when explained and bears similar characteristics with the former Quran miracles from this perspective.
PS: In this article, the term "evolution" refers to "random evolution", not to "directed evolution" or "front-loaded evolution".
Below is a list of quotations I found on the net about the relation between 19th century and atheism:
|Some of the great philosophers of the nineteenth century, such as Karl Marx, not only thought that no evidence existed to support the belief in a god, but also believed that religion was a creation of society. They thought that society created religion in order to supress man's desire to seek a good life by promising him a better after-life.(7) Others, like Sigmund Freud, believed that religion was something that comforted people and kept them somewhat in order. (8) With the endorsement of some of the greatest minds of the century, atheism became a notable philosophy of life for the first time in the nineteenth century.http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/atheism.html|
|Until the nineteenth century, atheism was widely thought to be not just false but impossible or crazy. By the early twentieth century, however, all that had changed. Indeed, according to some of our most influential culture-heroes - for example, Marx, Nietzsche and Freud - it is religion that is pathological and it is atheism that distinguishes our culture from those of the past. Yet despite the importance of atheism (for unbelievers and believers), its history has not been the object of much scholarly study.http://www.amazon.com/Atheism-Britain-David-Berman/dp/185506474X|
|Almost everyone who has studied human history, particularly its philosophical and social aspects, will agree that the nineteenth century was an important period, for it was during those years that the first steps were taken toward the future spiritual collapse. Its most important characteristic was the growth of atheism (i.e., rejecting God's Existence) as opposed to theistic beliefs and religion, which had been generally dominant in the world until then.…..Toward the end of the nineteenth century, atheists formulated a worldview that "explained" everything: The universe had not been created, for it had no beginning and had existed forever. They claimed that it had no purpose, that its order and balance were the result of chance, and that Darwin's theory of evolution explained how human beings and other living things came into being. They believed that Marx and Durkheim had explained history and sociology, and that Freud had explained psychology on the basis of atheist assumptions.http://www.riseofislam.com/rise_of_faith_01.html|
The French Revolution (1789-1799) shocked the world in its violence and marked the end of another era. Religion began to reform and tried to blame the deists and other movements for the social turmoil that resulted. This reform is evident in the image of God, which is now shown as a loving, humanist deity. Rationalism, and later on Freethinking, organizes itself and starts to bring about social reform.In 1841, Ludwig Feuerbach wrote a book called "The Essence of Christianity", which was one of the first German atheistic influences. The book theorized that God was man's projection of himself.A year later, George Jacob Holyoake (1817-1906) was arrested for blasphemy. An English freethought organizer, he coined the term "secular". In 1859, Charles Darwin publishes his famous book "Origin of Species", which gave atheists their first natural explanation of animal and human life.The freethinking movement definitely began to take root with the incredible action of two men, Charles Bradlaugh, and most importantly, Robert Ingersoll.http://www.objectivethought.com/atheism/history.html
|In the latter half of the 19th century, atheism rose to prominence under the influence of rationalistic and freethinking philosophers. Many prominent German philosophers of this era denied the existence of deities and were critical of religion, including Ludwig Feuerbach, Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, and Friedrich Nietzsche.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atheism|
|In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life, which described evolution by means of natural selection. As we stated at the beginning, one of the main supports for the rise of atheism to its zenith in the 19th century was Darwin’s theory of evolution.http://www.harunyahya.com/articles/70the_fall_of_atheism_sci34.php|
|The most influential publication of the nineteenth century was Charles Darwin 's Origin of Species. Published in 1859, described evolution by natural selection over millions of years and confirmed what many had suspected, that the Genesis creation story was not literally true. Many people became agnostics when they learnt how life on earth evolved and realised that there was no need for a god to have created it and that Earth and all the life forms on it were not created in six days, though others continued to prefer the biblical account. Scientists like Pierre and Marie Curie were not religious and motivated by the desire to know more and to improve the human condition.http://www.humanism.org.uk/site/cms/contentviewarticle.asp?article=1220|
|It was when the conflict between science and religion arose in the nineteenth century, largely because of Darwinism's inconsistency with a fundamentalist reading of the Bible, that humanism acquired its modern association with atheism or agnosticism. http://www.srcf.ucam.org/hmmsoc/|
|He realised that ideas have consequences and that the rise of atheism during the 19th century would in due course subvert the institutions created and sustained by the Judaeo-Christian faith.http://www.christianheritageuk.org.uk/Mobile/default.aspx?group_id=32432&article_id=43921|
About the Calendar
The question “Why a Christian Calendar” may come to minds of some people. Firstly, it should be mentioned that source of all these 19th century mischiefs is European lands, not Islam! During those times, Islam was living the 13th Moslem century, whereas Europe was living the 19th century. The key point here is that what is a mischief for unbelievers is the 19th of Europe, not 13th of Islam. To sum up, it would be meaningless to expect association of a problem not stemming from Islam with the Moslem calendar. Secondly, it is obviously stated in the verse that this fact related to the figure 19 will also be “meaningful” for not only Muslims but also people of the book. Finally, I would like to remind that the generally accepted calendar in today’s world is Christian one. Even most Moslem countries (excluding gulf countries) use the Christian calendar and refer to the Moslem calendar only for religious matters.
Look at the following quotation from a web site:
“The Islamic calendar is the official calendar in countries around the Gulf, especially Saudi Arabia. But other Muslim countries use the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes and only turn to the Islamic calendar for religious purposes.” http://webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-islamic.html
The idea advocated in this article can be said to be “ir-rational” and “lack of a solid ground”. However, if the parable about number 19 in Quran is seen as a riddle (puzzle), then the situation changes. The riddle is simply this: “Which 19 is a mischief for disbelievers?”. The answer is left to you! Solving riddles requires ingenuity and thinking out of the box. For example, let’s look at another one: “Why is six afraid of seven?”. Here is the answer: “Because seven ate (eight) nine”. Is it possible to solve this puzzle by means of thinking "rational"? Or does it require an extra-ordinary way of thinking?
In addition, it should be kept in mind that Quran's number 19 is a parable. A parable is a short allegory and an allegory is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other than the literal and appeals to "imagination" rather than "reason" and "logic". (Source: Allegory Item in Wikipedia)
Surely, some people claim that these inferences are not a proof and the verse may well stand for a different meaning. In the end, the expression “19th century will be a mischief for disbelievers” is not clearly denoted in the verse. I would like to ask this question to those people: Do you know everything based upon proof? For example, do you know the face of your grandma based upon proving or is the process your brain performs something different than proving? Let us give the answer: The key to this is hidden in the word “RECOGNITION”. Proof is the longest and most demanding way of cognition. It is also worthless in most cases. However, recognition is totally different. When it comes to recognition, there is no difference between a professor and a herdsman (from the point of superiority). If some shows you only ¼ of Mona Lisa, the famous portrait of Da Vinci, you know it is Mona Lisa, anyway. Please ask yourself how your brain processes it? The answer is, again, “RECOGNITION”. For my part, this is sufficiently obvious... When I looked at it, I find myself looking at something familiar as if I am looking at Mona Lisa.
Because of its relevance with the topic, I would like to give a verse from the Quran which is claimed to be written by a desert man:
“And when they listen to the revelation received by the Messenger, thou wilt see their eyes overflowing with tears, for they recognize the truth: they pray: "Our Lord! we believe; write us down among the witnesses.” Quran, Chapter Maide, Verse 83
A desert man (!) describes the secret that some people cannot comprehend even today, the way of knowing the reality: “Recognizing the Truth”! Nevertheless, some people will not be willing to accept the case exemplified in this verse. I want to give an answer to them with another verse which is included in the same sura with these verses:
“Forsooth, each one of them wants to be given scrolls (of revelation) spread out!” Quran, Chapter Muddesir, Verse 52
As a person born after Darwin’s time, I always felt myself incurred to divine injustice regarding religion. I have always envied those lived before Darwin due to their natural and unhesitant faith. However, I eventually understood that it is the best thing to leave the last word in this issue to the Quran. We end the paper with a verse:
“The Word of thy Lord doth find its fulfillment in truth and in justice: None can change His Words: for He is the One who heareth and knoweth all.” Quran, Chapter Enam, verse 115